Presentation on theme: "Adolescence: Psychosocial Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Adolescence: Psychosocial Development The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescenceby Kathleen Stassen BergerSeventh EditionChapter 16Adolescence: Psychosocial DevelopmentSlides prepared by Kate Byerwalter, Ph.D., Grand Rapids Community College
2Self and IdentityErikson’s fifth stage of psychosocial development is identify vs. diffusion. It involves the question, “Who am I?”PHOTODISC
3Multiple SelvesPossible selves: various intellectual fantasies about what the future might bring if one or another course of action is chosenFalse self: set of behaviors that is adopted by a person to combat rejection, to please others, or to try out as a possible self
4Paths to IdentityIdentity achievement: knowing who one is as a unique person, accepting some cultural values and rejecting othersThis allows a person to have strong convictions, but to remain open to alternate ideas and opinions.
5Paths to Identity (cont.) Identity diffusion: a lack of values, traits or commitmentsForeclosure: adopting preset roles and values, without questioningForeclosure may lead to prejudice, narrow-mindedness.
6Paths to Identity (cont.) Moratorium: a pause in identify formation, in which alternatives are exploredThis is an important step towards identity!Negative identity: a rebellious, defiant identity, taken on to anger adults
7Make it Real: IdentityOn paper, place yourself in an identity status for each of the following arenas:ReligionEthnic identitySexual orientationPoliticsCareerEducation
8Religious IdentityMany adolescents take longer than age 18 to achieve religious identity. Struggling with questions is an important part of the commitment.Example: The Amish encourage adolescents to go into the “real world” temporarily.
9Gender IdentityGender identity is the degree to which people see themselves as masculine or feminine.This includes gender roles (duties), and sexual orientation (towards same or opposite sex, or both).
10Ethnic IdentityEthnic identity involves identification with a particular ethnicity through values, diet, gender roles, language, clothing, etc.The process of ethnic identity may be especially intense for immigrant adolescents.
11Make it Real: Vocation and Identity What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of working during adolescence?How much of a connection do you see between the types of jobs had during high school, and those you have or will have in adulthood?
12Vocation and IdentityResearch has found that working during adolescence impedes identity formation, family relationships, academic achievement, and career success.Also, the types of jobs don’t tend to teach skills for later vocations.
13Support from AdultsThe “generation gap” between adults and teens is not wide when it comes to core beliefs and values.However, each generation does view interactions from his/her own perspective (generational stake).
14Generational Stake: An Example A young Indian American girl wanted the freedom and independence of cutting her hair. Her elders considered hair an essential part of being a “good Indian girl.”PHOTODISC
15Make it Real: What’s your prediction? At what age would you suppose parent-child conflict to be greatest?What are parent-child conflicts about?What does parent-child conflict a signal?
16Parent-Child Conflict NANCY RICHMOND / THE IMAGE WORKS
17Parent-Child Conflict (cont.) Is greatest during child’s tween years (10−13)Is greatest between mothers and daughtersUsually involves repeated, petty arguments about clothes, cleanliness, etc.Represents a teens desire for independence
18Culture and FamilySome have argued that adolescent rebellion is a product of Western culture.Parent-child conflict occurs later in adolescence for Asian and Latino teens, and hardly at all for teens in China.
19Aspects of Parent-Teen Relationships CommunicationSupportConnectednessControlPHOTODISC
20Parental MonitoringParental monitoring involves ongoing awareness of what a teen is doing, where, and with whom.It deters delinquency.
21Make it real: Parental Monitoring Is it possible to have too much monitoring? What would be the result?
22Peer RelationshipsPeer pressure: social pressure to conform to one’s contemporariesPeer pressure can be positive or negative.It rises during early adolescence, peaking around age 14 years of age.
23Peer Friendships Selection: peers choose one another Example: Drug users hang out with drug users, high achievers with high achievers.Facilitation: peers encourage one another to do things they wouldn’t do alone
24Peer Group for Immigrant Teens Conflict arises when the culture of friends of an immigrant teen differs considerably than the parents’ culture.The teen wants to “fit in” with both peers and family!
25Adolescent Interactions The following sequence occurs for adolescent interactions (timing varies):Groups of friends of one sex onlyLoose association of “boy” and “girl” groupSmall mixed-sex groupsPairing of couples
26HomosexualityTeens with a homosexual orientation rarely tell anyone until at least age 17 years of age.They may experience denial or repression of their sexual urges before finding their sexual identity.
27Teenage Sexual Activity Teens are by nature sexual beings.The question becomes what one does with that sexuality during adolescence.RUBBERBALL PRODUCTIONS
28Parental Guidance About Sex Question: Do you know any teen who has had a serious talk with his/her parents about sex?Often parents avoid the issue. But proper guidance can influence teens in a positive manner.
30Make it Real: Sex Education Did your school have some type of sex education program?If yes, at what age did it begin? What were the topics?Do you think schools should teach sex education?
31Sex Education in School In the U.S., almost all adults (90% or more) think high schools should teach sex education, including contraception.The concern is that talking about sex will lead teens to have sex. However, a report by the Surgeon General suggests this is not the case.
32Sex Education (cont.)Research suggests that the most effective sex education programs:Are multi-facetedPrecede sexual activity by a year or moreAdvocate for abstinence but also teach about contraceptives
33Peer Influence on SexFriends influence each other in both positive and negative ways.Examples: A “virginity pledge” among friends is positive. Pressure to “gain respect” by having sex is a negative.
34Media as a Sex EducatorTV and movies are FULL of sexuality, but offer little knowledge about sex.Using the Internet to find facts too often brings up pornography sites instead.
35Trends in Adolescent Sexuality Premarital sex has increased.Sexual interactions are more varied (e.g., oral sex).Teen births are decreasing worldwide.The use of protection has increased.
36Trends in Adolescent Sexuality (cont.) U.S. teens have more babies than teens in other countries, due to lower contraceptive use, and fewer abortions.In the U.S., teens with lower education tend to have sex and babies at earlier ages.
37Self-Esteem During Adolescence Self-esteem tends to decline between 6 to 18 years for many children.
41DepressionClinical depression: an overwhelming, enduring feeling of sadness and hopelessness.The rate of depression doubles at puberty to about 15%, affecting 1 in 5 teen girls and 1 in 10 teen boys in the U.S.
42Make it Real: Depression WHY do you think depression becomes more prevalent during adolescence?WHY do girls seem especially at risk?
43SuicideSuicidal ideation (thinking about suicide) is actually quite common during adolescence (e.g., 21% of girls).The actual suicide rate is lower among teens under age 20 than adults.
44More Facts on SuicideThe suicide rate among teens in North America and Europe has doubled since 1960.Worldwide, parasuicide (attempt) is higher for females and completed suicide is higher for males.
49More DestructionMany teens, especially boys, show bouts of anger and destruction during adolescence.Question: Should this rebellion be considered a “normal” part of adolescence?PHOTODISC
50Breaking the LawDelinquency is more frequent in adolescence than at other ages.Worldwide, arrest rates increase between years, declining slowly after that.Arrest rate for violent crimes is twice as high for teens as adults.
51Breaking the Law (cont.) Almost all teens have broken a minor law (e.g., curfew, speeding, truancy, etc.).Males are arrested 3 times as often as females; ethnic differences exist in arrest rates (but not in self-reports of illegal acts).
52Committing Crimes: Will it last? Adolescence-limited offender: a person whose crimes end by age 21 yearsLife-course persistent offender: a person whose crimes continue as an adult
53Possible Roots of Life-Course Offenders Antisocial as a childParental neglect or abuseBrain damageEarly sex and drug useLittle participation in school activities
54Intervention for Offenders Therapeutic foster care: foster families trained to teach anger management, school achievement, self-careThis reduces later arrests by more than half.It is costly in the short run, but saves money in prison, jail costs in the long run.
55Depression and Self-Destruction Adolescents can feel:despondent and depressed, overwhelmed by the world and their own inadequacies, oron top of the world, destined for great accomplishment
56The Usual Dip General trend in mood is more downward than upward Among boys, athletic self-confidence is especially likely to dip in adolescenceSelf-esteem drops at around age 12
57The Usual Dip (cont.)Adolescents who lack support from family, friends, or school are more vulnerable to the self-esteem dip.Loss of self-esteem may push them toward depression.
58Mood Disorders in Adolescence Warning signsNot eating, sleeping, talking, or moving in normal rhythmStrong feelings of despair or elation not based on realitySuicidal ideationThinking about suicide is common among adolescents
59Adolescent SuicideFive reasons for erroneous belief that suicide is an adolescent problemRate is triple the rate of 40 years agoAdolescents lumped together with young adults as one statistical categoryAdolescent suicide is shocking and grabs attentionSocial prejudice considers teenagers as problemsSuicide attempts are more common in adolescence
60Parasuicide and Prevention Parasuicide = deliberate act of self-destruction that does not end in deathParasuicide and suicide depend on five factorsAvailability of lethal means, especially gunsParental supervisionAlcohol and other drugsGenderAttitudes of the culture
62Rebellion and Destructiveness Internalizing problems = emotional problems that are manifested inward, when troubled individuals inflict harm on themselvesExternalizing problems = emotional problems that are manifested outward, when people “act out,” injuring others, defying authority, or destroying propertyMore common among boys
63Rebellion and Destructiveness (cont.) Acting out may signify trouble in three waysExternalizing actions may prove harmful to the actorExternalizing behavior often harms othersFor a significant minority, externalizing disorders signal the need for intervention
64Breaking the LawDelinquency is one indication of the emotional stress adolescents feel.Worldwide, arrests are more likely in the adolescent years; ages are the peak.
65Incidence and Prevalence Incidence: how often a behavior occursPrevalence: how widespread a behavior isAdolescent males are 3 times more likely to be arrested than females.African Americans are 3 times as likely to be arrested as European Americans, who are 3 times more likely to be arrested than Asian Americans.
66Crime PreventionAdolescent limited offender: person who becomes law abiding as an adultLife-course persistent offender: juvenile delinquent who continues patterns of lawbreaking throughout life