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Chapter Sixteen Adolescence: Psychosocial Development PowerPoints prepared by Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Sixteen Adolescence: Psychosocial Development PowerPoints prepared by Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Sixteen Adolescence: Psychosocial Development PowerPoints prepared by Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College

2 The Self and Identity Who am I? Identity—consistent definition of one’s self as a unique individual in terms of roles, attitudes, beliefs. and aspirations

3 Possible selves—various ideas of who one might be or become, each of which is typically acted out and considered as a possible identity False self—set of behaviors that is adopted by a person to combat rejection, please others, or try out as a possible self Multiple Selves

4 Three Types of False Selves –acceptable false self. Adopted to be accepted; arises from feelings of worthlessness, depression; low self- understanding –pleasing false self. Arises from wish to impress or please others; medium self- understanding –experimental false self. Adolescent tries out a self to see how it feels; high self- understanding Multiple Selves, cont.

5 Identity Status Erikson’s identity versus role confusion Identity achievement—attainment of identity: self-understanding in accord with past experiences and future plans –willing to reconsider values and goals of parents and culture, accepting some, rejecting others

6 Identity Status, cont. Identity Foreclosure –adopts values and goals of parents and culture without questioning closes out process before it begins Identity Diffusion –has few commitments to goals or values, and apathetic about taking on any role Identity Moratorium –experiments with alternative identities in order to try them out; not ready to make commitment to particular future goal

7 Developmentalists asked a series of questions to measure identity status –can a person achieve identity in one domain but still be searching in another domain? answer: yes –is identity formed from within or from without? answer: both Status Versus Process

8 Gender identity—identification of self as either male or female with acceptance of all roles and behaviors that society assigns to that sex –adolescents make a multitude of decisions about sexual behavior and select from many gender roles Gender and Ethnic Identity

9 Gender and Ethnic Identity, cont. Gender identity is often connected to ethnic identity Ethnic Identity –often questioning of ethnic identity and dominant American identity –As teens grow older, the need to be proud of general heritage grows greater

10 Sadness and Anger Adolescents can feel despondent and depressed, overwhelmed by the world and their own inadequacies, as well as on top of the world, destined for great accomplishment

11 Sadness and Anger, cont. Emotional problems are categorized in two ways –internalizing problems: problems are manifested inward to inflict harm on self –externalizing problems: problems are “acted out” by injuring others, destroying property, or defying authority

12 General trend in mood is more downward than upward –In U.S., both boys and girls feel less and less confident in math, language arts, and sports –self-esteem drops at around age 12 –adolescents without support from family, friends, or school more vulnerable to self- esteem dip loss of self-esteem may push toward depression The Usual Dip

13 Depression Rate of clinical depression more than doubles in puberty (15%) depression affects 1 to 5 teenage girls, and 1 to 10 teenage boys –hormonal changes may explain this, coupled with psychic stress of school, friends, sexual drives, and identity crises

14 Adolescent Suicide Suicidal Ideation –thinking about suicide common among adolescents

15 Adolescent Suicide, cont. Five reasons for erroneous belief that suicide is an adolescent problem –rate is triple the rate of 40 years ago –adolescents lumped together with young adults as one statistical category -adolescent suicide is shocking and grabs attention -social prejudice considers teenagers as problems -suicide attempts are more common in adolescence

16 Parasuicide—deliberate act of self- destruction that does not end in death Parasuicide and suicide depend on five factors –availability of lethal means, especially guns –lack of parental supervision –alcohol and other drugs –gender –cultural attitudes Parasuicide

17 Worldwide, parasuicide is higher for females; completed suicide is higher for males –except in China, where females complete suicide more than males Cluster suicides occur when several suicides are committed within the same group in a short time Gender, Ethnic and National Differences in Suicide

18 Adolescent Rebellion Many psychologists believe that rebellion for adolescent boys may be normal

19 Breaking the law is the most dramatic example of rebellion Worldwide, arrests rise rapidly at about age 12 and peak at about age 16 –44% of all U.S. arrests for serious crimes involve persons aged 10 to 20 Breaking the Law

20 Breaking the Law, cont. Incidence—how often a behavior occurs Prevalence—how widespread a behavior is Adolescent males are 3 times more likely to be arrested than females African-Americans are 3 times more likely to be arrested than are European- Americans, who are 3 times more likely as Asian-Americans to be arrested

21 Adolescent-limited offender—person who becomes law abiding as an adult Life-course persistent offender— juvenile delinquent who continues patterns of lawbreaking throughout life; career criminal Limiting the Damage

22 Family and Friends Family and peer support helps adolescents through good and bad times Support provides –sustenance –provisions –directions –ballast for stability –safe harbor or anchor

23 Parents Generation gap—distance between generations in values, behaviors, and knowledge—and understanding –adolescents often loosen ties to family –adolescents need to become psychologically separate Generational stake—each generation needs to see family from its own perspective

24 Typically, emerges in early adolescence, especially with daughters Bickering—petty, peevish arguing, ongoing and repeated Adolescents believe they should have privileges of adult status Parent-Adolescent Conflict

25 Parent-Adolescent Conflict, cont. Timing of problems is cultural –in general, for teens, bickering peaks in early to middle adolescence –For Chinese-, Korean-, and Mexican- American teens, parental conflict surfaces in late adolescence

26 Communication Support Connectiveness Control –parental monitoring Other Family Characteristics

27 Peers They’re more crucial in early teens –self-help group –help “bridge the gap between childhood and adulthood” –help to define who they are not (identity formation) –Can encourage socially desirable behaviors.

28 Pressure to conform is strong—up to age 14 Peers help to bridge gap between childhood and adulthood Peer pressure can be especially negative in times of uncertainty, but is not usually a corrupting influence on good adolescents Most peer-induced misbehavior is short-lived Peer Pressure Unmasked

29 Bicultural Conflict –caught between strict family traditions and generational push for autonomy May give in to parental control (girls) May join a delinquent group (boys) Establishing ethnic identity is not easy Peer Group for Immigrants

30 Sequence of Heterosexual Attraction –friendships of one sex or the other –loose association of girls’ group and boys’ group –smaller mixed-sex group formed from larger group –true intimacy; peeling off from group into couples, with private intimacies Romantic Attraction

31 Complications of this life style usually slow down romantic attachments –many reluctant to admit homosexuality –may mask feelings –depression and suicide higher for these youth Homosexual Youth

32 No other period is full of such multifactoral and compelling biological changes Fascinating and confusing social and intellectual transitions Most adolescents and their families survive fairly well Conclusion

33 Conclusion, cont. Most have some difficulties and some may have several –many problems stem from earlier development –even considering that, adolescents are open to new patterns, goals, and lifestyles plasticity –young people can find a path that leads to adulthood and its challenges

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