Presentation on theme: "Political Culture & Socialization. Political Culture Public’s ____________________ toward & their ______________ within the political system – Supportive."— Presentation transcript:
Political Culture & Socialization
Political Culture Public’s ____________________ toward & their ______________ within the political system – Supportive public facilitates a development of a new political system – Lack of support erodes foundation of the political system Three levels of political culture – ____________________ Level – how people view the values & organizations of the political system National pride, national identity, and legitimacy of government Feelings of legitimacy are foundational for successful systems – ____________________ Level – expectations of how politics should function & individuals’ relationship to the political process Principles of government, role of citizens, perceptions of political rights Participants are involved in the political process Subjects passively obey government officials & the law Parochials are hardly aware of government & politics (illiterate, rural, etc.) – ____________________ Level – public’s policy expectations of the government Role of government, government policy priorities
Two types of political culture ____________________ Political Culture – Citizens agree on appropriate means of making decisions – Agree on major problems in society – Agree on how to solve problems ____________________ Political Culture – Citizens are sharply divided on both legitimacy of the regime & solutions to major problems – Political subcultures – citizens may have sharply different views on at least some political matters – Issues: boundaries, nature of regime, correct ideology, etc.
Why culture matters Encapsulates the history, traditions, and values of society Understanding political culture understanding how people in a nation think & act politically ____________________ – cultural pattern is related to type of political process people expect & support – Support for a democratic system is higher in societies with a participatory political culture – Authoritarian states more likely to endure with many parochials – More democracy = more emphasis on self-expression
Political socialization How individuals form political attitudes & political culture Continues throughout entire lifetime Agents of socialization: – ____________________ Direct & Indirect Socialization – ____________________ involves explicit communication of information, values, or feelings towards politics – ____________________ occurs when political views are molded by experiences Can be unifying or divisive – ____________________ – brings people within a country together Public education – ____________________ – causes splits within society; example subcultures International conflict, death of popular public figure
Family Primary agent of socialization Children acquire basic political values & behavior patterns by adolescence from their families Transfer of political beliefs from one generation to the next Participation in family decision-making increases child’s sense of ____________________ Increase in single-parent families and women in the workforce influences children’s political socialization Beliefs are not same as ____________________ – People used to normally take same political party as parents – Changing now
religion Also linked to ____________________ Carriers of ____________________, which have political implications Religious differences make for political differences – More complicated than at first glance – Usually on social issues: abortion, gay marriage, LGBT rights, war Opinions vary within given religious institutions ____________________ religious communities tend to support political activity too
Schools Affect political skills & resources of the public Primary schools teach basics of ____________________ – Responsibilities of citizens – Expectations about government Designed to ____________________ affection for the government / system – Pledge of allegiance & the flag – Encourage emotional attachments to the system Some systems send different messages to different groups of people – Example: some Muslim nations segregate boys and girls within the school system, creating different experiences and expectations, & different content of instruction College courses introduce students to more ________________ ideas
Peers & Community Playgroups, friendship cliques, school & college fraternities, small work groups, etc. Motivate or pressure members to conform to ____________________ & ____________________ accepted by the group – May attend political demonstrations because your friends do – Ostracized for not voting Teenagers: peer pressure isn’t as strong in developing political values – Unless it directly involves you (war draft, minimum wage, etc.) Later on, peers are often in same ____________________, so you share similar opinions – Teachers or doctors have similar political opinions on matters related to careers
Mass media TV shows, news reports, magazines, celebrities, Facebook pages, Twitter feeds, Instagram accounts – they all shape your political opinion! Provide information about relevant issues: drugs, abortion, crime, war, etc. – All have some ____________________ – Leads to political discussion – You shape opinions based on information & how it is presented – Sometimes shaped by who shares the same ideas You are biased too based on your interpretation of information – ____________________ – read or watch sources that reinforce your own views – ____________________ – miss or ignore contradictions to your views
Other socializing factors ____________________ – life experiences and social divisions are often politically relevant ____________________ – shape political attitudes (economic groups, professional associations, etc.) ____________________ – attempt to mold issue preferences, get the apathetic involved, & find issues to mobilize support ________________________________________ – good or bad experience shapes political beliefs and attitudes
Discussion Topic How has each agent of socialization affected your political beliefs?