Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 European Middle Ages 500 – 1200 A.D."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 13 European Middle Ages 500 – 1200 A.D. Section 1: Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms
2 13.1 Vocabulary• Middle Ages - • Franks - • monastery - • secular - • Carolingian Dynasty - • Charlemagne-Era in European history following the fall of the Roman Empire, lasting from about 500 to 1500—also called the medieval period.People who settled in the Roman province of Gaul (roughly the area now occupied by France) and established a great empire during the Middle Ages.Religious community of men (called monks) who have given up their possessions to devote themselves to a life of prayer and worship.concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters.a dynasty of Frankish rulers, lasting from A.D. 751 to 987Charles the Great, Emperor of the Frankish kingdom from 771 to 814
3 Fall of Roman EmpireRoman Empire divides into East and West in year 395East becomes ByzantiumJustinian becomes Emperor in 527Byzantine Empire collapses around 1100 A.D.
4 Middle Ages 500 – 1500 A.D. Three Roots of Medieval Culture Classical heritage of RomeBeliefs of Roman Catholic ChurchCustoms of Germanic TribesWhat are the effects of multiple invasions?
5 Invasions of Western Europe Effects of Invasions:Disruption of TradeDownfall of CitiesPopulation changesDecline of LearningLoss of Common Language
6 Germanic Kingdoms Emerge The Roman catholic church survives invasionsThe concept of government changesFamily more importantSmaller communitiesUnwritten rulesPersonal relationships importantWarriors lived with KingsIt was a disgrace to outlive him
7 Clovis Rules the Franks Clovis brought Christianity in year 496Battle convinced him to convertAsked for God’s helpUnited Franks into one kingdom
8 Germans Adopt Christianity Church and Franks worked together to spread ChristianityMany moved back into RomeChurch built religious communities : MonasteriesMonks and Nuns lived there
10 An Empire EvolvesAfter death of Clovis in 511, Charles Martel takes control(Charles the Hammer)He was not EmperorGained more power than the KingExtended the kingdomDefeated MuslimsBecame Christian Hero
11 An Empire Evolves Charles Martel passed power to son Pepin the Short Gained title “King by Grace of God”Began Carolingian Dynasty in 751 A.D.
12 Charlemagne Becomes Emperor Pepin died in 768Frankish kingdom VERY strongCharlemagne took over after Pepin’s son Carloman mysteriously died 771
13 Charlemagne Becomes Emperor Charlemagne extends empireAfter helping the pope in Rome, he was crowned Roman EmperorHe was not from Rome!
14 Charlemagne Leads Revival Charlemagne managed his Empire very wellEncouraged learningOpened schoolsEncouraged monasteries to open schools for future monks
15 Charlemagne dies in 814Names only son Louis the Pious (The Fair) as EmperorNot very goodLouis the Pious’ sons fought for powerDivided empire into 3 partsAuthority broke down
16 Quiz Next Class 13.1 Vocabulary • Middle Ages - • Franks - • monastery - • secular - • Carolingian Dynasty - • Charlemagne-Era in European history following the fall of the Roman Empire, lasting from about 500 to 1500—also called the medieval period.People who settled in the Roman province of Gaul (roughly the area now occupied by France) and established a great empire during the Middle Ages.Religious community of men (called monks) who have given up their possessions to devote themselves to a life of prayer and worship.concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters.a dynasty of Frankish rulers, lasting from A.D. 751 to 987Charles the Great, Emperor of the Frankish kingdom from 771 to 814
17 Chapter 13 European Middle Ages 500 – 1200 A.D. Section 2: Feudalism in Europe
18 13.2 Vocabularylord-fief-vassal-knight-serf-manor-tithe-in feudal Europe, a person who controlled land and could therefore grant estates to vassals.an estate granted to a vassal by a lord under the feudal system in medieval Europe.in feudal Europe, a person who received a grant of land from a lord in exchange for a pledge of loyalty and services.in medieval Europe, an armored warrior who fought on horseback.a medieval peasant legally bound to live on a lord’s estate.a lord’s estate in feudal Europe.a family’s payment of one-tenth of its income to a church.
19 Invaders Attack Western Europe Many invaders came from yearVikings invade from the NorthAlso called Northmen or NorsemenWorshipped war like godsNicknames like Eric Bloodaxe andThorfinn Skullsplitter
20 Invaders Attack Western Europe Vikings used swords and heavy wooden shieldsArrived on huge ships, attack and leaveShips were hugeCould travel in 3 feet of waterVikings stopped attacking after they accepted Christianitywarmer weather made farming easierViking Leif Ericson reached North America around year 500
21 Invaders Attack Western Europe Magyars were a nomadic peopleattacked from EastRode horsesDid not settleTook captives to sell as slavesMuslims attacked from SouthConquered different areas
23 Invaders Attack Western Europe Effects of invasionsA lot of disorder and sufferingLived in constant fear and dangerKings could not effectively defendLocal rulers gained strength for defeating invaders
24 New Social Order: Feudalism A political and economic system of Europe based on the holding of all land in fief or fee … and characterized by homage, legal and military service of tenants, and penaltyIn exchange for military protection a lord (land owner) granted land called fief.The Person receiving fief was a vassal=Vassal= Serf
25 New Social Order: Feudalism Social classes were well definedYou were born into your social classSerfs were not slavesCould not leave the landCould not be bought or soldEverything they produced belonged to lord=Vassal= Serf
27 Manors: The Economic Side of Feudalism Manor = Lord’s EstateManor System:Lord provided serfs with housing, farm land, and protectionSerfs tended to land, cared for lords animals, and maintained the estateAll peasants owed the lord dutiesCertain days of labor or amount of grain
28 Manors: The Economic Side of Feudalism Manors were only a few square miles20-30 families lived thereSelf sufficient communityManor life was hardPeasants paid many taxesIncluding tithe – church tax 10% of incomeA lot of workingLife expectancy = 35 years old
32 Knights: Warriors on Horseback Charles Martel organized armored horsemen called KnightsTechnology: Saddle and stirrupsAllowed soldiers to fight on horsesWarrior’s trained all yearWere given land
33 Knighthood and Code of Chivalry Chivalry – Complex code of idealsA knight must fight bravely for 3 mastersFeudal lordHeavenly lordHis ladyKnights must be loyal, brave and courteous
34 A Knight’s Training Boys learned the code of chivalry early in life Age 7, sent off to another castle to learn fighting skillsAge 14, became a squire, or servant to a knightAge 21, a squire became a knightA young knight traveled for 2 years in search of wars and tournaments
35 Do not CopyMedieval Europe FeudalismDesign of Castle
36 Brutal Reality of Warfare War was brutalHot oil, water or lead was poured on soldiersArchers shot arrows to defend castle
40 Noblewoman – Peasant Woman – Could own little land Could send knights to warThrew rocks and fire arrows at attackersPeasant Woman –A lot of labor in home and fieldsChild careYoung women learned house duties
41 Chapter 13 European Middle Ages 500 – 1200 A.D. Section 4: The Power of Church
42 13.4 Vocabulary • clergy • sacrament • canon law • Holy Roman Empire • lay investiture
43 The Far Reaching Authority of the Church Church and European rulers competed for powerChurch had its own organizationPopeClergyBishopPriests
44 Feudalism divided many people Religion unified them Being part of religious communityLaw of the ChurchCanon LawMarriageReligious practicesConsequencesExcommunicationInterdict - religious services would not be performed
45 The Church and the Holy Roman Empire Otto the Great was king of Germany in 936Built up his power by forming alliance with churchLimited the power of noblesLater invaded Italy on Pope’s behalf and was named emperorGerman-Italian Empire became Holy Roman EmpireCaused many problems
46 The Emperor Clashes with the Pope Church not happy that the Emperor controlled the clergyLay investiture – kings and nobles appoint clergy1075, Pope banned lay invesitureGerman Emperor Henry IV was upsetTried to force the pope to resignEmperor was excommunicatedBegged Pope for forgiveness to save throne
47 Successors to Pope and Emperor met Showdown at CanossaKing Henry went to meet the PopeThe Pope forced Henry to wait outside for 3 days in the snowThe Pope was forced to forgiveSuccessors to Pope and Emperor metEstablished Concordat of WormsTreaty:Church could appoint BishopsEmperor could veto
48 Disorder in the Empire King Fredrick is elected in 1152 BarabarossaAggressively invaded rich cities in ItalyPope and Italian merchants formed alliance called Lombard LeagueLombard league soldiers defeated King FredrickUsed crossbows against knightsFredrick was forced to make peace