Presentation on theme: "Organic Compounds The Big Four"— Presentation transcript:
1 Organic Compounds The Big Four Objectives:- Highlight the similarities between protein, nucleic acid, lipids and carbohydrates- Examine amino acid structure and amino acid chains- Determine the function and shape of proteins and why they are Mr. Swift’s favourite.
2 What are the Big Four?The big four refer to the four organic compounds found in living things. They include:ProteinsNucleic AcidsLipidsCarbohydrates
3 Similarities in the Big Four They all have carbon as their core structureContain hydrogen, oxygen and several other atoms.They are called macromolecules (means giant molecules) and are made from thousands of smaller molecules.The smaller units are called monomers and they join together to form polymers.
4 Polymer Monomer Protein Nucleic Acids Lipids Carbohydrates Amino acids NucleotidesGlycerol and Fatty AcidsGlucose
5 Proteins Proteins have amino acids as their basic structure Only 20 amino acidsAmino acids are all similar in structure. They all have:Central carbon atomCarboxylic acid groupAmine groupSingle hydrogen atomR groupAn R group is an arrangement of different atoms
8 ProteinsCircle the two you want to memorizeStar methionine
9 Dehydration Synthesis ProteinsDehydration SynthesisDehydration refers to a loss of waterWhen one amino acid joins to another, the carboxyl group of the first bonds to the amine group of the second.This produces a peptide bond.Water is released in this process.
10 ProteinsGlycine + Glycine → Gly-Gly + H2O The reverse of this reaction is called hydrolysis
11 ProteinsDraw the dehydration synthesis of 2 alanine molecules.
12 Proteins 2 amino acids are a dipeptide molecule. More than 2 amino acids are a polypeptideMore than 200 amino acids are a protein.
13 ProteinsDraw the dehydration synthesis of an alanine and a glycine molecule.
14 Functions of Proteins Structural molecule Enzymes Hormones Antibodies Passive and active channels in the plasma membrane
15 Protein ShapesPrimary (Linear) – the sequence of amino acids are in a protein chain.
16 Protein ShapesSecondary (folded or helical) – the amino acids in the chain are twisted or folded upon themselves.
17 Protein ShapesTertiary (3D shape) – the chain itself is folded because of the interactions between the amino acids with large R groups.
18 Protein ShapesQuarternary – multiple polypeptides all with a 3D shape.
20 Activity Building a quaternary protein structure Notice that if you press or stretch your protein gently it springs back into place. Proteins are somewhat flexibleIf you stretch or press it harder the protein losses its shape and is unable to return to it’s original configuration. This can happen to a protein that had been altered by heat or chemical denaturation.
21 Review All organic compounds have __________ as their core element. Large molecules made up of repeating units are called __________.The building blocks of organic compounds are called __________.All 20 amino acids have the same structural blueprint; a central __________, an __________ group, a __________ acid group, a single ___________ and an _____________.The simplest amino acid is called ___________.Amino acids link together in a process called ________________.Amino acids are linked by a special covalent bond called a ____________.The first amino acid set down in every protein is _____________.Five important functions of my favorite organic compound are _____________, _________________, ________________, ________________, and ______________________________.Protein are found in 4 shapes: ________________, ___________________, ______________________ and _____________________.
22 Review All organic compounds have Carbon as their core element. Large molecules made up of repeating units are called Polymers.The building blocks of organic compounds are called Monomers.All 20 amino acids have the same structural blueprint; a central Carbon, an Amine group, a Carboxyl acid group, a single Hydrogen and an R-group.The simplest amino acid is called Glycine.Amino acids link together in a process called Dehydration Synthesis.Amino acids are linked by a special covalent bond called a Peptide.The first amino acid set down in every protein is Methionine.Five important functions of my favorite organic compound are Structural, Hormones, Enzymes, Antibodies and Carrier Protein.Protein are found in 4 shapes: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary.
23 Factors that Alter the Shape of Protein Temperature - Protein StructureChanges in pH – page 51 in your bookDenaturation – temporary change in shapeCoagulation – permanent change in shape
24 Page 51 in the Text book 1. What variable is plotted on the x-axis? Time in secondsWhat variable is plotted on the y-axis?Pressure of oxygen in kPa2. How did the rate of reaction change over time in the control reaction?The rate was very rapid and then levelled off3. Suggest an explanation for the change in the control at about 40 seconds.The hydrogen peroxide was used up
25 Page 51 in the Text book4. What effect do acids and bases have on the enzyme catalase?The base makes it less effective and the acid deactivates it so the reaction cannot take place5. Would it be valid to conclude that if a base were added to a reaction the rate of the reaction would slow down?The blue line shows that the pressure of oxygen was lower when the base was added, so yes, this would be a valid conclusion6. Predict what would happen if vinegar were added to a solution of hydrogen peroxide and catalase.Since vinegar is an acid, it would most likely make the reaction not take place.
26 Proteins as EnzymesEnzymes are proteins that act as biological catalystsCatalysts are substances that speed up the chemical reaction in cellsIn chemical reactions the elements or compounds entering into the reaction are called the reactants, the elements or compounds produced by the reaction are called the products.
27 Proteins as EnzymesOnly function in one chemical reaction – specificity (lock and key principle)Are unaffected by the reaction, so they can be used over again.If the shape of the enzyme changes, the enzyme can’t do it’s job.Reduce the activation energy needed to start the reaction
31 Review The big four Monomers and polymers All organic compounds have carbon as their core structureParts of an amino acidDehydration synthesis and hydrolysisFunctions of proteinsShapes of proteins
32 Review Denaturation and coagulation Factors that alter the shape of proteinsReactants and productsSpecificityCatabolic and anabolic
33 Objectives- Highlight the similarities between protein, nucleic acid, lipids and carbohydrates- Examine amino acid structure and amino acid chains- Determine the function and shape of proteins and why they are Mr. Swift’s favourite.