Presentation on theme: "Carbon Based Compounds"— Presentation transcript:
1 Carbon Based Compounds Beginning Organic Chemistry
2 The Importance of Carbon Carbon has four valence electronsThese four electrons have the ability to form four covalent bondsCarbon consistently bonds with hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen.These molecules make up the building blocks of living things. . .remember CHNOPS!
3 Carbon CompoundsCarbon compounds are also known as organic molecules or organic compounds.There are four types of organic compoundsCarbohydratesProteinsLipidsNucleic Acids
4 MacromoleculesMacromolecules are GIANT MOLECULES made of many smaller moleculesMacromolecules are also called polymers.A polymer is when monomers join togetherA monomer is the building block of polymers sometimes referred to as small sub-units.Monomers can be formed by many different types of molecules or they can be formed by identical molecules joining together.
5 CarbohydratesCarbohydrates are made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ration of 1:2:1For every one carbon atom there are 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen
6 Carbohydrates cont’dA carbohydrate functions as the main source of energy for living things.In animals it is glucoseIn plants its cellulose
7 Carbohydrate cont’dCarbohydrates can be used for structures in living things.In plants the cellulose allows plants to be tough, flexible and rigid.In animals they are formed from the breakdown of your food and are found in the structure of muscles to supply immediate energy to the cell.
8 Carbohydrate cont’dSingle carbohydrates or sugars are called monosaccharidesPolysacharrides are many single sugars combined.Polysaccharides store excess sugar in glycogen in animals.
9 Lipids Lipids are groups of molecules that are not soluble in water. They make fats, oils, and waxes.Lipids store energyThey are used to help waterproofingLipids include steroids
10 Lipids cont’d Lipids are formed when glycerol and fatty acids combine The monomer of a lipid is a fatty acidTwo type of LipidsSaturated fat that contain the maximum number of hydrogen bondsUnsaturated fats are fats that have at least one carbon double bond
11 Lipids Lipids are found in various places in the body Cell membranes Lining of organsUnder the skinPart of the skin
12 Nucleic AcidsNucleic acids are macromolecules that contain hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.They are made from monomers known as nucleotides.Nucleic acids function to store and transmit genetic information.There are two main types of nucleic acids:Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
13 Nucleic acids cont’dThe four nucleotides that are monomers of nucleic acids are: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine.DNA has a sugar and phosphate backbone with the nucleotides connecting each strand with a hydrogen bond to the corresponding nucleotide on the opposite side.DNA is found naturally in a state known as the double helix.
14 Nucleic acids cont’dDNA is the instructions that control the production of proteins within the cell.RNA is a single strand of sugar, phosphate backbone, with base pairs of uracil, adenine, guanine and cytosine.RNA reads the genes found in DNA to create proteins.
15 ProteinsProteins are large molecules that consist of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.Amino acids build protein molecules through a process called protein synthesis.Amino acids are formed through the instructions from DNA, being translated into RNA, which in turn codes for a specific amino acid.
16 Proteins cont’dProteins form from the amino acids changing their R group. The R group determines how the protein will fold.Primary structure of a protein forms through chains of amino acids.Secondary structure of a protein then twist into a helical shape similar to DNA.Tertiary structure folds and continue to turn.Quarternary structure forms when multiple polypeptide chains (amino acid chains) combine and intertwine.
17 Proteins cont’dProteins have variety of function within cells, the shape is what determines the function.Proteins function to:Provide structureRegulate cell processesSpeed up chemical reactionsHelp with transport of molecules within the cell membrane.