Presentation on theme: "The Structure of Proteins"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Structure of Proteins describe, with the aid of diagrams, the structure of an amino acid;describe, with the aid of diagrams, the formation and breakage of peptide bonds in the synthesis and hydrolysis of dipeptides and polypeptides;explain, with the aid of diagrams, the term primary structure;explain, with the aid of diagrams, the term secondary structure with reference to hydrogen bonding;
2 Protein UsesProteins are large molecules made up of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Some proteins also contain sulphur.Try to write down 5 uses for proteinsStructural components e.g. muscle or boneMembrane carriers and pores for active transport and facilitated diffusionEnzymesHormonesantibodies
3 All proteins are made of repeating units called amino acids HAll proteins are made of repeating units called amino acidsWe call a large molecule made of repeating units a polymerThe individual sub-units (like amino acids) are called monomersMany monomers join together to make a polymerAll amino acids have the same basic structure, an amino group at one end, a carboxyl (or acid) group at the other, and a carbon atom in betweenThe R group at the top stands for one of 20 sets of atoms that make all 20 amino acids differentIn glycine (the simplest amino acid), the R group is just a Hydrogen atom (H)
5 TaskUsing Cambridge Biology p , write about how amino acids are linked together to form a ‘polypeptide’You must include a diagram, and must also use the key terms that follow:Peptide bond, covalent bond, condensation reaction, polypeptide,When finished, complete SAQ 2 a and b
7 This is now called a dipeptide. Joining more will create a polypeptide Now explain how amino acids split apart, using a diagram and a description including the key word: hydrolysis
8 Questions What are essential amino acids? The backbone for a molecule with 4 amino acids is: N-C-C-N-C-C-N-C-C-N-C-C, draw this out in full, showing the amino acids joined and the peptide bonds formedHow many molecules of water would be produced in forming this amino acid chain?Why do we call this a polypeptide?
9 QuestionsWhat are essential amino acids? amino acids found in meat mostly- animals cannot make them in the liverThe backbone for a molecule with 4 amino acids is: N-C-C-N-C-C-N-C-C-N-C-C, draw this out in full, showing the amino acids joined and the peptide bonds formedHow many molecules of water would be produced in forming this amino acid chain? 3 molecules of water will be formedWhy do we call this a polypeptide? A molecule containing many peptide bonds