Presentation on theme: "Fall Protection: What to Know and What Not to Miss Presented by: Dan Weber, P.Eng., CCCA, LEED ® AP Project Engineer Read Jones Christoffersen Ltd. Victoria,"— Presentation transcript:
Fall Protection: What to Know and What Not to Miss Presented by: Dan Weber, P.Eng., CCCA, LEED ® AP Project Engineer Read Jones Christoffersen Ltd. Victoria, BC. June 13 th, 2013
Overview of Presentation Introduction to Fall Protection Fall Protection Systems Fall Protection Planning Site Placement and Positioning
Falls are the leading cause of fatalities in the construction industry (US Department of Labor) Top 10 injuries in the Workplace: 1. Overexertion 2. Falls on the Same Level 3. Falls to a lower Level Introduction:
What is Working at Heights? When work is being done at a place: from which a fall of 3 m (10 ft)* or more may occur, or where a fall from a height of less than 3 m involves a risk of injury greater than the risk of injury from the impact on a flat surface. *NOTE: Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) or Site Safety Procedures may have more stringent requirements but cannot change the minimums. Check with your local regulations for the minimums.
Who Governs Fall Protection? Primary Governing Body: Provincial Authority having Jurisdiction (WCB/OHS) Secondary Governing Body: Site Safety Programs that require more stringent regulations Local Bylaws Other Governing Bodies: Federal Projects – Canada Labour Code Airports, Federal Gov’t Projects, Interprovincial CSA Standards (may not be the most current version)
Jurisdictions in your Area Alberta - WCB/OHS Part 9 BC – WCB/OHS Part 11 Ontario – OHSA Part 2 For other Provinces refer to their local regulations. *OHS = Occupational Health and Safety
Fall Protection Systems Guardrails Travel Restraint Systems Fall Arresting Systems Other Acceptable Methods
Working at Heights Hierarchy Hierarchy of Fall Protection Systems when working at heights are as follows: The employer/owner must ensure that guardrails meeting the requirements of the AHJ or other similar means of fall restraint are used when practicable. If the use of guardrails is not practicable, the employer/owner must ensure that another travel restraint system is used. If a travel restraint system is not practicable, the employer/owner must ensure that a fall arrest system is used. If the use of a fall arrest system is not practicable, or will result in a hazard greater than if the system was not used, the employer/owner must ensure that work procedures are followed that are acceptable to the AHJ and minimize the risk of injury to a worker from a fall.
Fall Protection Systems Guardrails: Permanent: measuring at least 42” from the surface.
Travel Restraint Systems Travel Restraint: “travel restraint system" is a system that prevents one or more workers from reaching an unprotected edge or opening. (CSA Z259.16) Roof anchors, horizontal lifelines, elevators shafts
Can you spot the problem? Fall Restraint Systems Not an anchor
Fall Arrest Systems Fall Arresting Systems: "fall arrest system" an assembly of components that will arrest a worker’s fall when properly assembled and used together and when connected to a suitable anchorage. (CSA Z259.16)
When do you need a Fall Arresting System? When there is no guardrail and a travel restraint system is not available When the roof slope exceeds 4:12 When you are in a position where a fall could take place (i.e. slab/roof edge) When you are on a swingstage In full suspension i.e. bosun’s chair/harness
Other Acceptable Work Procedures Control Zones: "Control zone" means the area between an unguarded edge of a building or structure and a line which is set back a safe distance of at least two meters (6.5 feet). Safety Monitors: "Safety monitor system" means a system in which a trained worker is designated to monitor work activities in a control zone to ensure that work is done in a manner that minimizes the potential for a worker to fall. (Confirm if allowed in your area) Control Monitor?
How long does it take to fall? You will fall 20m (65’) in 2 seconds At a 6 foot height it will take you 0.8 seconds to hit the ground. You will not have time to grab something to prevent a fall.
The Physics of Falling
Clearance Distances Clearance: is defined as the safe distance required to prevent the worker from striking the next level or any other obstruction below, in the event of a fall. Free Fall: is the distance the worker will fall with no resistance. Typically limited to 1.8m max.
Types of Anchors What is an Anchorage? A structure that resists the forces applied by a fall protection, descent control, positioning, rescue, or suspended component/tie-back line system Examples: a beam, a roof slab, elevator core What is an Anchorage Connector (Anchor)? A component or system of components that secure fall protection descent control, positioning, rescue, or suspended component/tie-back line system to an anchorage Examples: an eyebolt, a baseplate with an attached loop, a loop attached to a platform.
Types of Anchors Cont’d What about Design Strength? Permanent anchors: BC: 22kN (5000lbs) fracture load (in any direction) Temporary anchors have lower design limits Note: All Permanent Fall Arrest, Travel Restraint and Suspension Anchors all have to be designed for the same ultimate force of 5000lbs (22kN) regardless of activities.
CSA Standards CSA Z259 vs CSA Z91/Z271 what is the difference? CSA Z259 “Design of Active Fall Protection Systems” covers all fall protection requirements for regular duties. (work not in suspension) CSA Z91 “Health and Safety Code for Suspended Equipment Operations” /Z271 “Safety Code for Suspended Elevating Platforms” covers suspension type work i.e. swingstages and bosun’s chairs. The main difference is the type of anchor you are connecting to, CSA Z91 requires a minimum diameter of 19mm. Z259 Z91
Horizontal Lifelines Horizontal Lifelines (HLL): Allows for maximum coverage with minimal anchors Challenges: Most only allow 2 users at one time. Not allowed to suspend from them Clearance calculations are different for HLL’s
The 5 Questions of Fall Protection Planning Why do I need anchors? What do I need? Who is going to do the work? When should it be done? Where should it go?
Why do I need anchors on my building? Owners Responsibilities: To provide adequate anchorage for workers To ensure contractors are using adequate anchorage To protect the health and safety of people using the systems
What do I need on my building? What activities will need to be done after the building is completed. –Do I need window washing only –Do I need full access to all surfaces (brick repairs/painting)? –Do I only need access to roof edge for maintenance (gutters)? –Do I need to only access mechanical units? –Do I need swingstages or davit arms?
Who is on my building? Who will be working on the building? –Will I have my own forces (VIHA, UVIC) –Window Washers –Roofing Contractors –HVAC Contractors Do I need special training for own forces? Do the contractors need special training?
When should it be done? New Construction: Needs Assessment – During Initial Design Phase Design integration & Documents – with Tender Documents Construction – During regular construction Testing/Certification – Post construction prior to handover Existing Buildings: Needs Assessment – Prelim meetings with client Design review for adequate strength – Prelim with Assessment Tender-Construction-Testing – Similar to New Construction
Where should it go? CSA Z – Design of Active Fall Protection Systems Anchors should be located throughout the roof to provide enough access as required by the task. Need to minimize swingfall to less than 1.2m (4’).
Where should it go? Cont’d CSA Z91-02 – Suspended Operations: Maximum 25˚angle* for life lines Maximum 12.5˚ angle* for suspension Maximum 3.0m (10’) offset Swingfall restrictions Swing Stages require more anchors *Note: New regulations per April 2013
Typical Anchor Plan
Documentation Required CSA Z – Active Fall Protection - Section 4 – Drawings and Specifications 4.1 General: must be prepared under a P.Eng 4.2 Sealing of Drawings: P.Eng who designs system must seal the drawings 4.3 Required Information: a)Type of System b)Drawings showing layout c)Qualification of worker including max weight of worker d)Specs for all components of system (breaking strengths, materials, model #’s) e)Proof testing if required f)Environment factors (Snow, wind) g)MAF h)Clearance calculations i)Assembly instructions j)Inspection and maintenance k)Safe access to and from system including usage l)Rescue plan m)As-built drawings.
Documentation Required Cont’d CSA Z91 – Suspended Equipment Operations – Section 7.3 – Inspection and Testing of Systems All new anchor systems shall be inspected and tested by a P.Eng. Review of existing systems every 12 months Testing of post installed anchors (epoxy, mechanical) every 5 years Section 7.4 – Inspection Reports All reports reviewed and sealed by a P.Eng. Must be kept with the equipment log book. Section 8 – Documentation 8.1 Equipment Log: to be kept by the Owner of the equipment a)Description and Operating instructions (rigging plans, intended usage) b)Installation records c)Records of Inspection and maintenance
Documentation Required Cont’d CSA Z91 – Suspended Equipment Operations – Section 8 – Documentation Continued 8.2 Roof Plans: to be kept by the Owner of the equipment a)Plan showing essential structural members, including anchors b)Detail of equipment c)Safe working loads d)All relevant obstructions and hazards on the roof e)Must sealed by a P.Eng f)Posted at each entrance to roof level 8.3 Work Plans: –Shall be completed for every project (a Written Fall Protection Plan) similar to WorkSafe BC requirements.
Challenges with Fall Protection System Design: Ropes deflecting over guardrails Architectural Appendages (Window Shades, Parapets) Irregular Shaped Buildings (Pointy) Interference with Mechanical/HVAC Systems Not enough or inadequate structure available Roof Overhangs Access to the anchors (steep roofs, connecting within control zones) What to Watch out for
Summary As an owner you need to protect yourself and the workers Select the Fall Protection System based on need Provide adequate layout and coverage Ensure adequate structure available Engage a consultant versed in Fall Protection Requirements who will look out for the owners best interest from a cost and safety point of view