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***9th GRADE CUTOFF*** Topics for Questions 20-25

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1 ***9th GRADE CUTOFF*** Topics for Questions 20-25
Scientific Revolution -Sep Agricultural Revolution - Sep Enlightenment -Sep French Revolution - Oct Industrial Revolution - Nov Imperialism - Dec/Jan Nationalism – Nov/Dec WWI – Causes, Events, Results - Jan Russian Revolution - Feb

2 Scientific Revolution
Just because something was a done a certain way for a 1000 years doesn’t mean it was done right for 1000 years Galileo Copernicus Sir Isaac Newton Microscope Bacteria Autopsy

3 The Church Was Questioned….
About the center of the universe… About why things fall…. Gravity Galieleo’s and Copernicus’ Heliocentric Model

4 The Church Was Questioned….
About why people get sick… And why good people die while bad people live….. Bacterium Autopsy Microscope

5 Francis Bacon, Galileo, and Isaac Newton promoted the idea that knowledge should be based on  1.  the experiences of past civilizations  2.  experimentation and observation  3.  emotions and feelings  4.  the teachings of the Catholic Church During the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, one similarity in the work of many scientists and philosophers was that they  1.  relied heavily on the ideas of medieval thinkers  2.  favored an absolute monarchy as a way of improving economic conditions  3.  received support from the Catholic Church  4.  examined natural laws governing the universe Which statement best describes the effects of the works of Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Sir Isaac Newton, and René Descartes?  1.  The acceptance of traditional authority was strengthened.  2.  The scientific method was used to solve problems.  3.  Funding to education was increased by the English government.  4.  Interest in Greek and Roman drama was renewed

6 Agricultural Revolution
Just because something was a done a certain way for a 1000 years doesn’t mean it was done right for 1000 years Jethro Tull – seed drill Scientific Farmers – experiment Enclosures = fields where experiments took place “Less is More”

7 Less Fields of Grain = More Grain
Less is More….. Experimentation on Enclosed Farm Fields Jethro Tull – seed drill Less Seed = More Crops Less Fields of Grain = More Grain

8 Before a nation can begin to industrialize, that nation must first develop
a democratic government a rigid class structure a strong religious foundation an adequate food supply

9 Enlightenment Positive view of man Voltaire = Satire
Made fun of Monarchs + Church John Locke = Life, Liberty, Property Inspired Thomas Jefferson and American Revolution Rousseau = Social Contract “Man is born free yet everywhere is in chains” Majority Rules =Democracy Negative view of man Hobbes Man is selfish Monarchs must be absolute but should care for their people Enlightened Despots and Absolute ‘Rulers should Rule Montesquieu Author “The Prince” Favored Absolute Rulers Better to be loved out of fear

10 If People Were Wrong About So Much… What Else Might We Be Wrong About???
People Do Not Have To Submit To A Divine King… People Have Rights And Can Have A Say In Government

11 Speaker A: Good government stresses the importance of the nation and accepts the rights of the individual only if the interests of the individual are the same as those of the nation. Speaker B: The person of the king is sacred and to attack him in any way is to attack religion itself. The respect given to a king is religious in nature. Speaker C: All human beings are born free and equal with a right to life and liberty. It is the duty of government to protect these natural rights of its citizens. Speaker D: Our goal will not be achieved by democracy or liberal reforms, but by blood and iron. Only then will we be successful. No nation achieves greatness or unity without the traumatic experiences of war. Which speaker’s statement best reflects the ideas of the Enlightenment?  1.  A  2.  B  3.  C  4.  D “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” The ideas expressed in the quotation are based primarily on the writings of  1.  Niccolo Machiavelli  2.  Charles Darwin  3.  Charlemagne  4.  John Locke Which statement reflects an argument of Enlightenment philosophers against the belief in the divine right of kings?  1.  god has chosen all government rulers  2.  independence is built by military might  3.  a capitalist economic system is necessary for democracy  4.  the power of the government is derived from the governed

12 --Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains
--Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains. --Everyone has the natural right to life, liberty, and property. --Slavery, torture, and religious persecution are wrong. During which period in European history would the ideas in these statements have been expressed?  1.  Pax Romana  2.  Age of Exploration  3.  Enlightenment  4.  Age of Imperialism Which statement best describes a change that occurred during both the Renaissance and the Enlightenment?  1.  feudalism became the dominant political system  2.  the use of reason and logic were discouraged  3.  technology and science were considered unimportant  4.  a new questioning spirit and attitude emerged A major concept promoted by philosophers of the Enlightenment was the need for  1.  a return to traditional medieval ideas  2.  the use of reason for rational and logical thinking  3.  overseas expansion by western European nations  4.  strengthening the power of the organized religions

13 French Revolution 3 Stages – The French Poodleution Causes
Key Terms: The Estate System, Bourgeoisie, Marie Antoinette, Bread Riots, Tennis Court Oath, General Assembly Reign of Terror Key Terms: General Assembly, Robespierre, Jacobin Party, Radicals, Enemy of the State, Guillotine Napoleonic Era Key Terms: Spread the Revolution across Europe, Crowned himself Emperor, Public Schools, Napoleonic Code (compare: 12 tables, Justinian Code), Invaded Russia during winter, Vienna Congress

14 Causes of French Revolution
Poor Leaders

15 Reign of Terror of French Revolution
Robespierre’s Committee Of Public Safety Guillotine = Death To Enemies of the Revolution

16 Napoleonic Era of French Rev.
The Good The Ugly The Bad Public Schools For Kids of Poor Citizens Kills 300K Men Invading Russia During Winter Declares Himself Emperor

17 One important result of the French Revolution was that 1
One important result of the French Revolution was that  1.  France enjoyed a lengthy period of peace and prosperity  2.  the church was restored to its former role and power in the French government  3.  political power shifted to the bourgeoisie  4.  France lost its spirit of nationalism Which statement is a valid generalization about the immediate results of the French Revolution of 1789?  1.  the Roman Catholic Church increased its power and wealth  2.  the revolution achieved its goal of establishing peace, democracy, and justice for all  3.  the revolution had little impact outside France  4.  the French middle class gained more power In France, which was a major result of the French Revolution?  1.  the king was restored to unlimited power  2.  the clergy dominated government  3.  the middle class gained political influence  4.  the tax burden was carried by the lower class

18 A study of revolutions would most likely lead to the conclusion that pre-Revolutionary governments  1.  are more concerned about human rights than the governments that replace them  2.  refuse to modernize their armed forces with advanced technology  3.  attempt to bring about the separation of government from religion  4.  fail to meet the political and economic needs of their people “Congress of Vienna Restores Monarchy to France” “Czar Nicholas I Limits Freedom of the Russian Press” “Reform Movements Crushed in Hungary, Italy, and the German States” These headlines could be described as  1.  reactions to the French Revolution  2.  movements to unify all of western Europe  3.  efforts to improve the conditions of factory workers  4.  attempts to promote trade between European nations The French people supported Napoleon Bonaparte because they hoped he would  1.  adopt the ideas of the Protestant Reformation  2.  restore Louis XVI to power  3.  provide stability for the nation  4.  end British control of France

19 Global Impact of French Revolution
Impact on South America, Haiti, Mexico Simon Bolivar = Bolivia’s Independence Jose de San Martin = Frees most of South America (Columbia, Peru etc) from Spanish colonial rule “Pancho” Villa = Mexican Independence Toussaint L’ouverture = Haitian Independence COMPARE: MORE LAND AND FREEDOM FOR THE POOR/ENSLAVED

20 South American Revolutionaries
Creoles Upset With Encomienda System Get Support From Slaves and Natives Haitian Slaves Led by T’oussaint L’overture Demand Rights and Revolt ala French Revolution

21 Simon Bolivar and Miguel Hidalgo, leaders of Latin American independence movements, were inspired by successful revolutions in  1.  the Untied States and France  2.  the Soviet Union and China  3.  Cuba and Costa Rica  4.  Egypt and Kenya One similarity in the leadership of Latin Americas Jose de San Martin, Toussaint l’Ouverture, Bernanrdo O’Higgins, and Pedro I was that each leader  1.  opposed United States intervention in Haiti  2.  led a struggle to gain freedom for the people of his nation  3.  opposed membership of his nation in the League of Nations  4.  established an absolute monarchy in his nation Which of these situations was the direct result of the other three?  1.  nations of Latin America won independence  2.  revolutions occurred in North America and France  3.  the Napoleonic wars weakened Spain’s power  4.  creoles and mestizos became discontented with Spanish rule

22 Simon Bolivar, Toussaint L’Overture, and Bernardo O’Higgins were Latin American leaders of  1.  economic development  2.  educational reforms  3.  independence movements  4.  colonial expansion In which region of the world did the American Revolution and the French Revolution have the greatest influence during the 1800’s?  1.  Southeast Asia  2.  Latin America  3.  South Asia  4.  sub-Saharan Africa Simón Bolívar, José de San Martín, and Toussaint l’Ouverture are important in Latin American history because they were  1.  20th-century caudillos  2.  leaders of liberation movements  3.  members of the Organization of American States (OAS)  4.  winners of the Nobel Peace Prize

23 Industrial Revolution
Industrialization vs Cottage Industry Capitalism (Factors of Production = Land Labor Capital) Adam Smith = Author: “The Wealth of Nations” Supply and Demand Pros vs Cons Women’s Rights Better (needed workers) Labor Unions Pollution, Overpopulation Child Labor Manchester England Urbanization Population Density

24 Industrialization Adam Smith = Author: “The Wealth of Nations”
Supply and Demand Factors of Production = Land, Loot, Labor Pros and Cons of Mass Production Dangerous Profitable Boring Better Products Child Labor Employment Wealth Gap

25 Which condition is most necessary to the process of industrialization in a society?  1.  dependence on subsistence agriculture  2.  creation of a one-crop economy  3.  availability of investment capital  4.  capture of foreign lands A major result of the Industrial Revolution was the  1.  concentration of workers in urban areas  2.  increased desire of the wealthy class to share its power  3.  formation of powerful craft guilds  4.  control of agricultural production by governments -Europeans sought new markets for their goods. -Many Europeans migrated to the cities in search of jobs. -European middle class gained political power. What was the major cause of these changes in Europe?  1.  Industrial Revolution  2.  rise of feudalism  3.  Congress of Vienna  4.  French Revolution

26 Imperialism Industrialization fuels need for resources (land, labor, capital) so Mother Country rapes colonies (COMPARE: MERCANTILISM) and builds an “Empire” at colonies expense Africa Key Words: Scramble for Africa (Berlin Conference), White Man’s Burden, Boer War, The Congo India Key Words: British East India Company, Sepoy Mutiny, The Raj China Key Words: Opium Wars, Boxer Rebellion Japan Key Words: Matthew Perry, Meiji Restoration Ireland Key Words: Irish Potato Famine, American Immigrants, Catholics vs. Protestants

27 Imperialism In Africa Making A Mess of A Diverse Land

28 Which is an accurate statement about the partitioning of Africa by European imperialist nations during the 1800’s?  1.  new nations were based on old tribal boundaries  2.  the cultural and ethnic diversity of the African people was disregarded  3.  the continent was divided equally among the colonial powers  4.  African unity was encouraged After 1880, European nations sought colonies in Africa primarily because the Europeans were  1.  in need of land for their surplus populations  2.  competing of raw materials and markets  3.  determined to bring Christianity to the Moslem world  4.  interested in completing their geographic knowledge of the world The 19th century term “White Man’s Burden” reflects the idea that  1.  Asians and Africans were equal to Europeans  2.  Asians and Africans would be grateful for European help  3.  imperialism was opposed by most Europeans  4.  Europeans had a responsibility to improve the lives of the colonial peoples

29 Imperialism In India Britain Refuses To Lose “Crown Jewel” Trade Colony East India Company Ruled India Sepoy Mutiny = Protest British East India Company Rule (waterproof bullets wrapped in animal fat = cultural conflict)

30 Imperialism In China Failed Attempts to Push “White Devil” OUT
China Loses Opium Wars European Powers Force China To Open To Trade Boxer Rebellion Fails to Force Foreigners Out

31 The Sepoy Mutiny in India, the Boxer Rebellion in China, and the Islamic Revolution in Iran were similar in that they  1.  restored power to the hereditary monarchies  2.  attempted to reject the traditional cultures in these countries  3.  resisted foreign influence in these countries  4.  reestablished the power of religious leaders During the 19th century, Europeans were able to divide China in Spheres of Influence mainly because the  1.  Chinese were eager to adopt western culture  2.  Europeans had technologically superior military forces  3.  Europeans were willing to adopt Chinese customs  4.  Chinese lacked raw materials and resources The Boxer Rebellion of the early 20th century was an attempt to  1.  eliminate poverty among the Chinese peasants  2.  bring western-style democracy to China  3.  restore trade between China and European nations  4.  remove foreign influences from China

32 Imperialism in Japan If you can’t beat ‘em…. Join em! Matthew Perry
American Warship Forces Japan Open Ending Isolation Under Tokugawa Shogun Strong Central Gov Restored Under Meiji Emperor

33 Imperialism in Ireland
Irish Leave To Avoid Death – British Don’t Help In Order To Take Vacated Land

34 British control over South Africa and Ireland, French control over Indochina, and Spanish control over Mexico are examples of  1.  isolationism  2.  appeasement  3.  nonalignment  4.  imperialism The modernization of Japan during the Meiji Restoration resulted in  1.  a return to a feudal system of government  2.  the rise of Japan as an imperialistic nation  3.  an alliance between China, Korea, Russia, and Japan  4.  a strengthening of Japan’s isolationist policies In Japan, the Meiji Restoration resulted in the  1.  division of the nation between the European powers  2.  modernization of the nation’s industry  3.  abolition of the position of emperor  4.  government being controlled by the samurai

35 Nationalism Loyalty to people of similar Borders, Language, Culture NOT Loyalty to a King COMPARE: Point of view of the colony vs point of view of the Imperial Country Nationalism Unites Italy (KW: Red Shirts, Garibaldi, Mazzini, Cavour) Germany (KW: Otto Von Bismarck, Blood and Iron) Nationalism Divides Greece (KW: Lord Byron) Yugoslavia (KW: Serbia, The Balkans)

36 Nationalism Unites Germany
German Speaking Kingdoms Unite Otto Von Bismarck “The great issue of the day (German unity) will be solved not with speeches but with blood and iron”

37 Nationalism Unites Italy
Cavour Unites the Kingdoms Garibaldi and Red Shirt Soldiers

38 “A country is not merely a geographic territory
“A country is not merely a geographic territory. A country is also the idea given birth by the geographic territory. A country is a sense of love that unites, as one, all the sons and daughters of that geographic territory…” --World History: A Story of Progress This quotation supports the idea of  1.  totalitarian rule  2.  absolute monarchy  3.  mercantilism  4.  nationalism Nationalism is most likely to develop in an area that has  1.  land suited to agriculture  2.  adequate industry to supply consumer demands  3.  a moderate climate with rivers for irrigation  4.  common customs, language, and history The best example of the success of nationalism in Europe is the  1.  development of socialism in France  2.  Industrial Revolution in Great Britain  3.  establishment of the Common Market  4.  unification of Germany

39 WWI Long Term Causes Short Term Causes Imperialism Old Hatreds
Arms Race Nationalism in the Balkans Short Term Causes Secret Alliances Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand by a Serbian nationalist

40 WWI Events European War New Weapons Russians revolt
Mostly fought on European soil New Weapons kill more people faster Russians revolt food and gas shortages Key Words: Trench Foot, Mustard Gas, Czar Nicholas of Russia, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany Outcomes Russian Revolution – Russia drops out of war America joins = Fresh troops Versailles Treaty = punish Germany, Ottomans, and Austria-Hungary Take land away Form new countries Force losers to pay war repair $ League of Nations formed but doesn’t work properly (US prez. Wilson’s 14 points idea but US does not join) Key words: Bolshevik Revolution, War Reparations, Creation of Poland

41 WWI – cause/event/outcome
Archduke Assassinated Triggers Alliance System Trench War Develops To Avoid New Weapons Versailles Treaty Punishes Germany

42 In Eastern Europe (The Balkans) after World War I, the greatest obstacle to national unity in many nation-states was the  1.  great ethnic diversity found in the region  2.  economic dependence of Eastern Europe on Japan  3.  acceptance of democratic traditions by most Eastern Europeans  4.  expansion of United States influence in the region A major cause of World War I was  1.  a decline in the policy of imperialism  2.  the existence of opposing alliances  3.  an increase in acts of aggression by England  4.  the spread of communism throughout Europe Why was the Balkan region referred to as the “Powder Keg of Europe” prior to World War I?  1.  The aggression of the Ottoman Empire was disrupting the balance of power.  2.  Yugoslavia was invading its neighboring countries.  3.  Nationalistic and imperialistic rivalries were increasing.  4.  The area was the leading supplier of military equipment to the rest of the world. The major impact of the Treaty of Versailles on Germany was that the treaty led to  1.  an era of peace and international good will in Germany  2.  a stable Germany that was both democratic and strong  3.  an increase in Germany’s desire to regain its power and prestige  4.  a leadership position for Germany in the League of Nations

43 Russian Revolution Causes Karl Marx WWI Events March Revolution
Author: The Communist Manifesto Class Struggle (rich take advantage of poor) WWI Bread and Fuel Shortages Events March Revolution Overthrow Czar V.I. Lenin “Peace,Land and Bread” Forms Soviets (local labor unions to run government) N.E.P. = New Economic Plan Outcomes Leon Trotsky Led Bolshevik Revolution White Army vs Red Army Forms USSR Josef Stalin Totalitarian Dictator Propaganda 5 Year Plans Collective Farms The Great Purge

44 Russian Revolution The Communist Manifesto Class Struggle Josef Stalin
Proletariat vs Bourgeoisie Czar mistreats the people Bread and Fuel Shortages Josef Stalin Totalitarian Dictator 5 year plans Collective Farms Purge Political Opponents Vladamir Lenin Promises: Peace, Land Bread Organizes Soviets (labor unions) New Economic Policy = ½ Commuinst and ½ Capitalist Overthrows Czar in Bolshevik Revolution

45 A major cause of the Russian Revolution of 1917 was the 1
A major cause of the Russian Revolution of 1917 was the  1.  defeat of Germany in the Russian campaign  2.  marriage of Czar Nicholas II to a German princess  3.  existence of sharp economic differences between social classes  4.  appeal of Marxism to the Russian nobility The Russian peasants supported the Bolsheviks in the 1917 Revolutions mainly because the Bolsheviks promised to  1.  establish collective farms  2.  maintain the agricultural price-support system  3.  bring modern technology to Russian farms  4.  redistribute the land owned by the nobility “…the organizations of the revolutionaries must consist first, foremost, and mainly of people who make revolutionary activity their profession…such an organization must of necessity be not too extensive and as secret as possible…” -V.I. Lenin, 1917 This quotation refers to Lenin’s plan to  1.  defeat Germany in World War I  2.  establish democracy in Russia  3.  maintain communist power in Western Europe  4.  overthrow the Russian government The term that best describes the position of Jews in Czarist Russia is  1.  political elite  2.  persecuted minority  3.  landed gentry  4.  military leaders

46 Josef Stalin’s leadership of the Soviet Union can best be characterized as a period of  1.  democratic reform and nationalism  2.  humanism and democracy  3.  religious freedom and tolerance  4.  censorship and terror Under Josef Stalin, the Soviet Union emphasized centralized economic planning and Five-Year Plans primarily to  1.  produce more consumer goods  2.  expand exports  3.  create a demand for high-quality imports  4.  develop heavy industry Which is generally a characteristic of a communist economy?  1.  investment is encouraged by the promise of large profits  2.  the role of government in the economy is restricted by law  3.  government agencies are involved in production planning  4.  entrepreneurs sell shares in their companies to the government The political reorganization of Russia after the Communist Revolution of 1917 resulted in  1.  the establishment of a two-party political system  2.  increased political power for ethnic minorities  3.  a limited monarchy with the czar as a figurehead  4.  a federation of socialist republics

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