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Presentation on theme: "AKS 44 RECAP INDUSTRIALIZATION IMPERIALISM NATIONALISM World History."— Presentation transcript:


2 Industrialization Factors of production  Land  Labor  Capital Great Britain industrializes first  Access to abundant quantities of all three factors of prod.  Textile industry industrializes first – Flying shuttle, spinning jenny, etc. Factories streamline production  Water-powered first, then steam-powered later Impact of industrialization – see chart p. 727

3 Industrialization (cont.) Industrialization spreads to continental Europe  France  Germany  Then to the Americas and the Unites States by beginning of 1800s Shift in population  From rural areas to cities looking for work in factories Industrial-age cities  Factory work was long, monotonous, dangerous  Child labor  Housing was overcrowded, unhygienic  Disease was rampant Reform movements:  Industrial-age working conditions eventually lead to:  Child labor laws  Abolition of slavery  Increased rights for women

4 Capitalism v Socialism Factory owners become incredibly wealthy (Bourgeoisie) Factory workers struggle to make a living (Proletariat) Industrial capitalism emerges – p. 734  Adam Smith  Laissez-Faire economics  Supply, demand, and the ‘invisible hand’ Opponents to capitalism:  Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels – Socialism  Bourgeoisie v. Proletariat  Predicted a Proletariat uprising and the creation of a society in which goods & services would be shared equally  See chart p. 737

5 Russia & Japan Industrialize Later than other movements – Late 1800s State-sponsored and very quick  Japan: Meiji government  Russia: Romanov Czars Both modeled their industrialization techniques after those of the west. As in the west, industrialization in these countries will eventually lead to imperialism

6 Imperialism Industrialized nations race to claim foreign lands as colonies  As sources of raw materials  As new markets  As a source of power and prestige  Felt responsible for bringing technology to ‘un-civilized’ areas  “The White Man’s Burden”  Fueled economic/military competition among powers Types of imperialist styles: (all on P. 780)  Direct v Indirect  Paternalism

7 Imperialism (cont.) In Africa:  European countries begin to conflict over African territory  In order to avoid war, they decide to meet in Berlin:  Berlin Conference (1884-1885)  European delegates ONLY  African continent divided among European nations (map p. 777)  Little regard for ethnic / historical boundaries & differences  Boer War  Britain v Netherlands over South African territory  Britain wins, Union of South Africa established - 1910

8 Imperialism (cont.) In India:  British first establish indirect control through the BEIC  After the Sepoy Mutiny (1857) pp. 793-794, Britain takes over directly – “The Raj”  India becomes the main supplier of raw materials for British industry, and its largest market for manufactured goods.  Became known as the “Jewel in the Crown” of the British Empire  Native resentment against British rule fueled nationalism  More on this later in the unit…

9 Imperialism (cont.) In Asia  China:  Unfavorable balance of trade leads the British to sell opium  High number of Chinese become addicted; Chinese government calls for the British to stop the sale of opium; British refuse  Opium War (1839 – 1842) British military far superior to Chinese (industrialization) 1842 Treaty of Nanjing (Nanking) p. 806 signed: British take control of Hong Kong China forced to grant ‘extraterritorial rights’ within ‘spheres of influence’ Opium trade continued (highly lucrative)  Native resentment to foreign rule eventually leads to the Taiping Rebellion (p. 807)

10 Imperialism (cont.) In Japan  Initially forced to trade with the West after signing the Treaty of Kanagawa (1854) p. 810  Japan forced to open up its ports to western trade  Forced to grant extraterritorial rights  Rise of the Meiji (Meiji Restoration) reverses this trend  Long-term result is that Japan undergoes western-style industrialization and becomes an imperial power in Asia.  Japan occupies & annexes Korea (1907 – 1910)  Japan invades China (Sino-Japanese War) – 1895  Russ0-Japanese War (1904-1905)  Result shatters the myth of European cultural superiority All on pp. 812-813


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