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Unit 5: Age of Revolutions ( )

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1 Unit 5: Age of Revolutions (1750-1914)
Global History II Review

2 Scientific Revolution
New Ideas about the Universe Scientific Revolution- period of change Heliocentric theory said sun is center of universe. (Copernicus and Galileo) Newton proved gravity and natural laws New ways of thinking Scientific Method- experimentation and observation to prove theories Human Reason was valued

3 Enlightenment Science and the Enlightenment Leading Thinkers/ Thoughts
Natural Laws govern human behavior Enlightenment rejected traditional beliefs Leading Thinkers/ Thoughts Locke: Natural Rights- life, liberty, & property Montesquieu: Separation of powers Voltaire: Religious toleration Rousseau: Social Contract, give up freedoms for the common good of all

4 Enlightenment Impact of the Enlightenment
Promoted change in many governments Inspired democracy and revolutions Enlightened rulers made changes in their countries (also able to keep power) Key principles for the foundation of American Revolution, United States government and the French Revolution

5 Political Revolutions
American Revolution (1776) Influenced by Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights and ideas of the Enlightenment Symbol of freedom in Europe and Latin Amer. French Revolution (1789) Causes: Absolute Monarchy, social inequality, economic hardships, Enlightenment ideas, American Revolution and English laws

6 Political Revolutions
French Revolutions Stages Creation of the National Assembly Seizure of the Bastille Declaration of the Rights of Man Creation of a limited monarchy Radicals come to power and Reign of Terror Napoleon comes to power Napoleonic Code- laws made by Napoleon Napoleon is a stabilizing force

7 Political Revolutions
Effects of the French Revolution Democratic ideals spread through Europe Nationalism emerges in Europe (France) Latin American Independence (1790s) Toussaint L’Ouverture (former slave) breaks Haiti free from French rule Simon Bolivar a Creole gains independence from Spain for much of South America Jose de San Martin defeats the Spanish for independence in Argentina and Chile

8 Reaction Against Revolution
Congress of Vienna (1815) Attempt to put Europe back the way it was before the conquests of Napoleon Revolutions of 1830s and 1848 Liberals (revolutionaries) revolt against conservatives (monarchy) Rebellions were not successful in the long term but the ideas remained

9 Reaction Against Revolution
Absolutism in Czarist Russia Russian Czars maintained power in Russia Feudal society continued in Russia with serfs Russification- policy to make groups act Russian within Russian borders Instability in Latin America Social injustice even with democracy Military rulers lead many nations Economies grow slowly Mexican Revolution due to unequal distribution of wealth

10 Global Nationalism Nationalism: Love for one’s country
Revolutions in Greece, Poland, Belgium, and across Latin America Unification Movements Italy: Cavour and Garibaldi worked to unite all of Italy as one nation Germany: Bismarck used war and politics to unite the German and Prussian Empires Zionism: Desire for a Jewish homeland

11 Global Nationalism Nationalism in Asia
India: called for self-rule and independence from the British colonizers Indian National Congress and Muslim League worked to achieve independence Turkey: Young Turks took control of Ottoman government Armenian Massacre: Turks turned against Christians living in the Ottoman Empire Nationalism and conflict in the Balkans

12 Economic Revolution Agrarian Revolution (1750)
Increased food production through changes in farming techniques Enclosures forced small farmers off lands Better food created a population explosion Industrial Revolution ( ) Means of production of goods shifted from hand tools to complex machines Caused by increased work force, improved technology, and new capital for investment

13 Economic Revolutions Effects of the Industrial Revolution
Laissez-faire economics means the government does not interfere in production Free Market or Capitalism develops Big businesses emerge Middle class and lower classes struggle Urbanization- growth of cities Poor working conditions for workers Improved transportation (steam engine) Great Britain, France, Germany and the United States are the most industrialized nations

14 Social Revolutions Inspired by the hardships of the Ind. Rev.
Social Darwinism- survival of the fittest Socialism- concentrated on interests of society Wanted businesses and farms to belong to all the people and not just individuals Marxist Socialism (Communism) Karl Marx called for a revolution by the workers against the capitalists The people should control all means of production

15 Social Revolutions Education: Public schools were developed Reforms
Slavery is abolished nearly everywhere Suffrage is expanded More rights for workers Improvements in universal education Impact of Industrialization Migration to industrialized nations Famine in Ireland forced Irish to leave Development of a global economy (interdependency)

16 Japanese/ Meiji Restoration
Opening of Japan (1853) Japan was isolated for 200yrs. (Tokugawa) US Commodore Perry forces Japan to open Treaty of Kanagawa gave America trading rights with Japan Modernization and Industrialization Emperor Meiji worked to modernize Japan Japan borrowed from the West the best ideas

17 Imperialism Imperialism: Causes
The domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country (Bullying) Causes Nationalism and belief in social Darwinism Militarism- need to be stronger than others Need for raw materials and natural resources “White Man’s Burden”

18 Imperialism British in India Scramble for Africa Imperialism in China
Sepoy Mutiny- Indians refused to fight for G.B. Scramble for Africa European nations carved up Africa for colonies Africans resisted fought (Boer War) Imperialism in China Opium War with Britain Spheres of Influence created Boxer Rebellion- Chinese Boxers wanted to get rid of foreigners in China

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