Presentation on theme: "The Problem 1. Identify a problem"— Presentation transcript:
1The Problem 1. Identify a problem 2. May be something you have observed3. You wonder why it happens
2Purposesentences that explains why you are doing this investigation2. Should state what benefit will be gained from answering the experimental question3. “The purpose of this project is “
3The Question 1. Experiment is designed to answer the question. 2. Must be answered with measurable data collected during the experiment3. Is not based on opinion or a survey4. Must contain the Dependent and Independent Variable
4Variables 1. Anything in an experiment that can change. 2. Only two variable should change:1. one on purpose2. one as a result3. All other variable must remain thesame - controlled
5Independent Variable Dependent Variable Controlled Variables What you change on purpose in an experiment to see if it makes a difference.The whole point of the experimentIndependent I changed itDependent VariableWhat changes in an experiment because of the independent variable.What you are measuring – the dataDependent DataControlled VariablesAll other aspect of an experiment must remain the same.
6Identify the Variables Underline the independent variable and circle the dependent variable.1. Will Bounty or Gala absorb more water?Will Bounty or Gala absorb more water?Controlled:same size paper towelsame amount of waterequal time of towel in water
72. Does flake or chunk shaped cereal absorb more milk? Does flake or chunk shaped cereals absorb more milk?Controlled:same amount of milksame amount of cerealsame type bowls
83. Will nail polish dry faster under a light or a fan? Controlled:Same amount of exposure to light and fanSame type of nail polishSame amount of polish: 1 or 2 coats
9Hypothesis 1. States a proposed solution to a scientific problem 2. Should answer the problem question3. Must contain both the Independent andDependent Variable.4. Must be written with an If. . . then,. . . statement
10Hypothesis Practice 1. Will Bounty or Gala absorb more water? If Bounty and Gala are placed in water, then Bounty will absorb more water.2. Does flake or chunk shaped cereal absorb more milk?If flake and chunk shaped cereal is placed in milk, then flake shaped will absorb more milk.3. Will nail polish dry faster under a light or a fan?If nail polish is placed under a light and a fan, then the polish under the light will dry faster.
11Which can go faster a motorcycle or a car? If a motorcycle or a car is driven, then a motorcycle will go faster.Which water evaporates faster salt water or fresh water?
12Procedures All steps to do the experiment All steps must be numbered Include: labeling, brands, types, amounts, units, and sizesInclude repeat steps if appropriateShould have at least 3 trialsGathering materials is not part of the proceduresAnyone should be able to perform this experiment with the procedures.
13Question: Will Bounty or Gala paper towels absorb more water? Cut one Bounty paper towel into a 20 x 20 cm squarePlace the paper towel into the square metal cake panPour 100 mL of water onto the paper towel in the metal cake panLet paper towel sit in water for 30 secondsHold the paper towel by two corners and lift it out of the waterLet paper towel drip for 30 secondsThrow paper towel awayPour water left in the metal cake pan into a beakerDetermine amount absorbed: subtract amount of water left from 100 mLRecord the amount absorbed on the data tableRepeat steps 1-10 two more times with Bounty paper towelsRepeat steps 1 – 11 with Gala Towels
14Procedure Practice2. Does flake or chunk shaped cereal absorb more milk?3. Will nail polish dry faster under a light or a fan?
15Material Lists 1. List all materials and equipment used in experiment 2. Include: brands, types, amounts, units, and sizes3. Use only metric measurements
16Example Material List Question: Will Bounty or Gala absorb more water? 3 – 20 x 20 cm squares each: Bounty and Galapaper towels1 pair of scissors250 mL beaker600 mL water 20*Cx 20 cm sq metal cake pan1 - Celsius thermometer1 - Clock with second handUnderline the brands, types, amounts, units, and sizes
17Example 3 –squares each: Bounty and Gala paper towels 1 pair of scissors250 mL beaker600 mL water 20*Cx 20 cm sq metal cake pan1 - Celsius thermometer1 - Clock with second hand
18Material List Practice Select the question you wrote procedures for and write a material list2. Does flake or chunk shaped cereal absorb more milk?3. Will nail polish dry faster under a light or a fan?
19Data Tables 1. Used to collect data from experiment 2. Columns and rows must be labeled3. May contain a row for a total or average4. Have a main title = what’s on the graph
21Graphing Two main types of graphs BAR: used to compare – data that does not occur in a continuous mannerLINE: data that occurs in a continuous manner
22Graph Construction Title: short description of data being displayed, each axis also needs a titleHorizontal Axis: independent variableVertical Axis: dependent variableSpacing: evenly placed across both horizontal andvertical axes
23Paper Towel Absorbency Water Absorbed (mL)Paper Towels
24Graph PracticeThe following data was collected during an experiment with the question: Will chunk or flake cereal absorb more milk?Chunk mLFlake mLTrial 12520Trial 22817Trial 326Total7957Average39.530
25Graph PracticeWill chunk or flack cereal absorb more milk?
26Conclusion 1. Examine all of your data: charts and graphs 2. Ask yourself questions???Were the results expected – how were they differentAny problems or occurrences that effected the outcomeDid you collect enough data/have enough
27Conclusion 3. State what your results were – include data numbers 4. Was your hypothesis supported or refuted5. Describe any problems or unusual events6. What should be done differently7. Revised hypothesis if needed.
28ConclusionIf chunk and flake cereal are placed in milk, then chunk cereal will absorb more milk.Our group preformed an experiment to find out which type of cereal absorbed more milk. We used chunk and flake cereal and 2% milk to perform the experiment. The experimental results showed us that chunk cereal absorbed 39.5 mL of milk while the flake cereal absorbed 30 mL of milk. This data shows that chunk cereal absorbs more milk than flake therefore, our hypothesis was supported. The experiment proceeded as expected and no problems occurred.