3 Steps of the Scientific Method State the ProblemForm a HypothesisSet Up a Controlled ExperimentRecord and Analyze ResultsDraw a Conclusion
4 State the ProblemClearly state your problem to avoid confusion later
5 2. Form a HypothesisHypothesis - an educated guess as to what the outcome might beMust be TESTABLEMust be based on what you know or observations
6 3. Set Up a Controlled Experiment Must have two groups to test the hypothesis:The experimental group - the group that you change somethingYou may have several groups in this groupThe control group - the group that you do not change anything; provides a method of comparison
7 3. Set Up a Controlled Experiment In the experimental group, you can only change one variable! Everything else must stay the same between the two groups.Variable – something that changesIndependent Variable – the variable that the experimenter changes (plot on the x-axis)Dependent Variable – results from a change in the independent variable (plot on the y-axis)
8 4. Record and Analyze Results Includes charts, tables, and graphsMust determine if the data is significantly different
9 5. Draw a Conclusion Two Conclusions Only: The data supports my hypothesis that…..The data does not support my hypothesis that……..Do not infer anything that your data does not provide information about.
12 ExampleProblem: "Which one of these two paper towels will absorb more water?"
13 ExampleHypothesis: Brand A paper towel will be able to absorb more water.Based on the two observations that Brand A paper towel is both larger and thicker than Brand B paper towel.
14 ExampleFor our problem, we need to create a test that will determine whether or not Brand A paper towel will absorb more water than Brand B paper towel.Our experiment consisted of:measuring waterfolding a paper toweldipping it into waternoting how much water it had absorbedthen repeating the process with the other brand of paper towel.
15 ExampleConclusion: We were correct! Brand A paper towel absorbed more water than Brand B paper towel.