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The Scientific Method. Steps of the Scientific Method 1. State the Problem 2. Form a Hypothesis 3. Set Up a Controlled Experiment 4. Record and Analyze.

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Presentation on theme: "The Scientific Method. Steps of the Scientific Method 1. State the Problem 2. Form a Hypothesis 3. Set Up a Controlled Experiment 4. Record and Analyze."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Scientific Method

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3 Steps of the Scientific Method 1. State the Problem 2. Form a Hypothesis 3. Set Up a Controlled Experiment 4. Record and Analyze Results 5. Draw a Conclusion

4 1.State the Problem  Clearly state your problem to avoid confusion later

5 2. Form a Hypothesis  Hypothesis - an educated guess as to what the outcome might be  Must be TESTABLE  Must be based on what you know or observations

6 3. Set Up a Controlled Experiment Must have two groups to test the hypothesis: 1. The experimental group - the group that you change something You may have several groups in this groupYou may have several groups in this group 2. The control group - the group that you do not change anything; provides a method of comparison

7 3. Set Up a Controlled Experiment  In the experimental group, you can only change one variable! Everything else must stay the same between the two groups. Variable – something that changes Variable – something that changes Independent Variable – the variable that the experimenter changes (plot on the x-axis)Independent Variable – the variable that the experimenter changes (plot on the x-axis) Dependent Variable – results from a change in the independent variable (plot on the y-axis)Dependent Variable – results from a change in the independent variable (plot on the y-axis)

8 4. Record and Analyze Results  Includes charts, tables, and graphs  Must determine if the data is significantly different

9 5. Draw a Conclusion  Two Conclusions Only: The data supports my hypothesis that….. The data supports my hypothesis that….. The data does not support my hypothesis that…….. The data does not support my hypothesis that……..  Do not infer anything that your data does not provide information about.

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12 Example  Problem: "Which one of these two paper towels will absorb more water?"

13 Example  Hypothesis: Brand A paper towel will be able to absorb more water. Based on the two observations that Brand A paper towel is both larger and thicker than Brand B paper towel.Based on the two observations that Brand A paper towel is both larger and thicker than Brand B paper towel.

14 Example  For our problem, we need to create a test that will determine whether or not Brand A paper towel will absorb more water than Brand B paper towel.  Our experiment consisted of: 1. measuring water 2. folding a paper towel 3. dipping it into water 4. noting how much water it had absorbed 5. then repeating the process with the other brand of paper towel.

15 Example  Conclusion: We were correct! Brand A paper towel absorbed more water than Brand B paper towel.


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