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© 2011 National Safety Council Fires and Burns About 4,200 deaths every year 416,000 injuries lead to emergency department visit Most occur in the home Most fires and burns can be prevented 11-1
© 2011 National Safety Council Functions of Skin Protection from pathogens Fluid retention Temperature regulation Sensation 11-2
© 2011 National Safety Council Layers of Skin 11-3
© 2011 National Safety Council Preventing Sunburn Keep infants under age 1 out of direct sunlight Use sunscreen and lip balm Wear wide-brimmed hat and protective clothing Limit sun exposure between 10 am and 4 pm Be aware of reflective surfaces (water, snow) 11-4
© 2011 National Safety Council Heat Burns Caused by sun, flames, contact with steam or any hot object Severity depends on amount of damage to skin and other tissues 11-5
© 2011 National Safety Council Put Out The Fire Stop, drop and roll Use water on any flames Cool the burned area Remove clothing and jewelry 11-6
© 2011 National Safety Council Assessing a Burn What type of burn? -1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd degree? How extensive? -How much body area? What specific body areas burned? Any special circumstances? 11-7
© 2011 National Safety Council Classification of Burns First-degree -Superficial burn -Damages only outer layer of skin Second-degree -Partial-thickness burn -Damages skin’s deeper layers Third-degree -Full-thickness burn -Damages all layers of skin 11-8
© 2011 National Safety Council
First Degree AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved.
© 2011 National Safety Council Second Degree AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved.
© 2011 National Safety Council Second and Third Degree
© 2011 National Safety Council Third Degree (full thickness) AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID–RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES FOURTH EDITION Copyright © 2006 by The American National Red Cross All rights reserved.
© 2011 National Safety Council Assessing Burn Size and Severity Rule of Nines Each arm 9% (4.5 front/back) Each leg 18% (9 front/back) Torso-front 18%(9 chest/ab) Torso-back 18% (9 lower/upper) Head 9% (4.5 front/back) Genital region 1% 11-14
© 2011 National Safety Council Call 9-1-1 Any 3 rd degree burn larger than a 50 cent piece Any 2 nd degree burn more than 10% of body in adult (5% in child or older adult) 2 nd or 3 rd degree burn on face, genitals, hands or feet Circumferential burns Burns around nose and mouth Victims with chronic health disorders 11-15
© 2011 National Safety Council First Aid for First-Degree Burns 1.Stop the burning. 2.Cool burned area with cold running tap water. 3.Remove constricting items. 4.Protect burn. 11-16
© 2011 National Safety Council First Aid for Second-Degree Burns 1.Stop the burning. 2.Cool burned area with cold running tap water. 3.For large burns call 9-1-1. 4.Remove constricting items. 5.Apply loose non-stick dressing over area. 11-17
© 2011 National Safety Council First Aid for Third-Degree Burns 1.Stop the burning 2.Cool surrounding areas with cold water (but not more than 20% of the body or 10% for child) 3.Remove constricting items 4.Call 9-1-1 5.Treat shock 6.Apply non-stick dressing to area 11-18
© 2011 National Safety Council Smoke Inhalation Any victim in fire could have airway or lung injuries from smoke inhalation Airway may swell and make breathing difficult Damage to alveoli may affect ability to receive oxygen Symptoms may not be obvious for up to 48 hours after exposure 11-19
© 2011 National Safety Council Chemical Burns Strong chemicals can burn skin on contact Sometimes burns develop slowly Acids, alkalis, liquids and solids can cause burns Flush substance off skin with water as soon as possible 11-20
© 2011 National Safety Council First Aid for Chemical Burns 1.Send someone to check the Material Safety Data Sheet for the chemical 2.Move victim to avoid fumes 3.Brush off dry chemical from skin 11-21
© 2011 National Safety Council First Aid for Chemical Burns continued 4.Remove clothing and jewelry from burn area while flushing with water 5.Flush entire area quickly with large amounts of running water until EMS personnel arrive 6.Call 9-1-1 11-22
© 2011 National Safety Council Flush eye immediately with water until EMS personnel arrive Have victim remove contact lens Tilt victim’s head so water runs away from other eye 11-23 First Aid for Chemical Burns continued
© 2011 National Safety Council Electrical Burns and Shocks Occurs when body contacts electricity Typical injuries occur with faulty appliances or power cords or appliance in contact with water 11-24
© 2011 National Safety Council Injuries from Electricity External injuries may include entrance and exit wounds Internal injures caused by electricity flowing through body -Heart rhythm irregularities -Cardiac arrest 11-25
© 2011 National Safety Council First Aid for Electrical Burns 1.Do not touch victim until it is safe. Unplug or turn off the power 2.Call 9-1-1 3.Give BLS to unresponsive victim 4.Care for burn 5.Treat for shock 11-26
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