2Chapter 20 Fungi Section 1: Introduction to Fungi Section 2: Diversity of FungiSection 3: Ecology of Fungi
3Characteristics of Fungi Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Introduction to FungiCharacteristics of FungiBelong to the Kingdom FungiUnicellular or multicellularEukaryotic heterotrophsDecomposers
4Major Features of Fungi Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Introduction to FungiMajor Features of FungiCell wall composed of chitinHyphae form a netlike mass called a mycelium.Hyphae provide a larger surface area for nutrient absorption.
5Major Features of Fungi Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Introduction to FungiMajor Features of FungiHyphae are divided into cells by cross-walls called septa.Septa allow nutrients, cytoplasm, and organelles to flow between cells.Some fungi are aseptate.
6Three types of fungi that differ in how they obtain nutrients Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Introduction to FungiNutrition in FungiThree types of fungi that differ in how they obtain nutrientsSaprophytic fungiParasitic fungiMutualistic fungi
7Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Introduction to FungiNutrition in FungiSaprophytic fungi are decomposers that recycle nutrients from dead organisms.Parasitic fungi absorb nutrients from the living cells of another organism.Mutualistic fungi live in a mutualistic relationship with another organism.
8Fungi are classified by their structures and patterns of reproduction. Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Introduction to FungiReproduction in FungiFungi are classified by their structures and patterns of reproduction.Fungi can reproduce asexually and sexually.Asexual reproduction in fungi includes budding, fragmentation, and spore reproduction.Sexually reproducing fungi produce spores.Visualizing a Fairy Ring
9Unicellular yeast cells reproduce asexually by budding. Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Introduction to FungiBuddingUnicellular yeast cells reproduce asexually by budding.The new cell develops while attached to the parent cell.The plasma membrane pinches off to separate the new cell and the parent cell.
10A form of asexual reproduction Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Introduction to FungiFragmentationA form of asexual reproductionOccurs when the mycelium is broken apartIf the fragments of mycelia land in a location suitable for growing, then the hyphae will grow into a new mycelia.
11A spore develops into a new organism without the fusion of gametes. Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Introduction to FungiSpore ProductionThe asexual and sexual life cycle of most fungi includes spore production.A spore develops into a new organism without the fusion of gametes.Spores produce new hyphae that form a mycelium.
12Classification of Fungi Chapter 20Fungi20.2 Diversity of FungiClassification of FungiChytridiomycota (chytrids)Zygomycota (common molds)Ascomycota (sac fungi)Basidiomycota (club fungi)Deuteromycota (imperfect fungi)
13Characteristics of Chytridiomycota (Chytrids) Chapter 20Fungi20.2 Diversity of FungiCharacteristics of Chytridiomycota (Chytrids)UnicellularMost are aquatic.Some are saprophytic.Produce flagellated spores
14Characteristics of Zygomycota (Common Molds) Chapter 20Fungi20.2 Diversity of FungiCharacteristics of Zygomycota (Common Molds)MulticellularMost are terrestrial.Many form mutualistic relationships with plants.Reproduce sexually and asexually
15Life Cycle of Zygomycota (Common Molds) Chapter 20Fungi20.2 Diversity of FungiLife Cycle of Zygomycota (Common Molds)Reproduce both sexually and asexually
16Characteristics of Ascomycota (Sac Fungi) Chapter 20Fungi20.2 Diversity of FungiCharacteristics of Ascomycota (Sac Fungi)Most are multicellular, but some are unicellular.Variety of habitats; saprophyticParasitic or mutualisticReproduce sexually and asexually
17Life Cycle of Ascomycota (Sac Fungi) Chapter 20Fungi20.2 Diversity of FungiLife Cycle of Ascomycota (Sac Fungi)Reproduce sexually and asexually
18Characteristics of Basidiomycota (Club Fungi) Chapter 20Fungi20.2 Diversity of FungiCharacteristics of Basidiomycota (Club Fungi)Most are unicellular.Most are terrestrial.Saprophytic, parasitic, or mutualisticRarely produce asexually
19Characteristics of Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi) Chapter 20Fungi20.2 Diversity of FungiCharacteristics of Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi)No sexual stage observed.Very diverse groupMight not be considered a true phylumFungi Phyla
20Fungi and Photosynthesizers Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiFungi and PhotosynthesizersLichens and mycorrhizae are two examples of mutualistic relationships between fungi and other organisms.Mutualism is a type of symbiosis where both organisms benefit from the relationship.
21A green algae or cyanobacterium provides food for both organisms. Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiLichensProvide a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and an alga or a photosynthetic partner.A green algae or cyanobacterium provides food for both organisms.The fungus provides a web of hyphae in which the algae or cyanobacterium can grow.
22The fungus provides hyphae where the algae or cyanobacterium can grow. Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiLichensThe fungus provides hyphae where the algae or cyanobacterium can grow.
23Over 25,000 species of lichens Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiDiversity of LichensOver 25,000 species of lichensOnly need light, air, and minerals to growFound in the harshest environments
24Often they are the pioneer species in an area. Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiDiversity of LichensTo survive drought, they can dry out, stop photosynthesis, and become brittle.Often they are the pioneer species in an area.They help trap soil and fix nitrogen, which helps in the colonization of plants.
25Lichens as Bioindicators Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiLichens as BioindicatorsThey are sensitive to airborne pollutants.When air pollution rises, lichens will often die.
26A mutualistic relationship between a fungus and plant root Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiMycorrhizaeA mutualistic relationship between a fungus and plant rootThe fungus absorbs and concentrates various minerals for the plant.The hyphae increase the plant’s root surface area for absorption.The fungus receives carbohydrates and amino acids from the plant.
2720.3 Ecology of Fungi Medical Uses of Fungi Penicillium notatum Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiMedical Uses of FungiPenicillium notatumused as a source of penicillinClaviceps purpureaused to reduce high blood pressureto control excessive bleedingto treat migraine headachesto promote contractions during birthTolypocladium inflatumthe source for cyclosporineCyclosporine is an immune suppressant drug.
28Mushrooms we eat are fungi. Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiFungi and FoodMushrooms we eat are fungi.Yeast makes bread rise.Truffles are fungi.The flavors of some cheese are the result of fungi.
29Fungi and Bioremediation Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiFungi and BioremediationFungi are mixed with water or soil where they decompose organic materials in pollutants.The pollutants are broken down into harmless substances.
30kills American elm trees Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiHarmful FungiCeratocystis ulmikills American elm treesEndothia parasiticakills American chestnut treesLeptoterochilia medicaginiscauses leaf blotch in alfalfa
31Fungi can parasitize humans and other animals. Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiHarmful FungiFungi can parasitize humans and other animals.Cordyceps militaris can infect butterflies and moths.Athlete’s foot, ringworm, yeast infections, and oral thrush are infections in humans.
32Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions FungiChapter Resource MenuChapter Diagnostic QuestionsFormative Test QuestionsChapter Assessment QuestionsStandardized Test Practicebiologygmh.comGlencoe Biology TransparenciesImage BankVocabularyAnimationClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson.
33Approximately, how many species of fungi have been identified? Chapter 20FungiChapter Diagnostic QuestionsApproximately, how many species of fungihave been identified?less than 10,000about 50,000over 100,000over 1,000,000
34Identify the type of fungus that is considered Chapter 20FungiChapter Diagnostic QuestionsIdentify the type of fungus that is considereda decomposer, feeding on dead organisms.saprophyticparasiticmutualisticpredatory
35All fungi are heterotrophs. Chapter 20FungiChapter Diagnostic QuestionsTrue or FalseAll fungi are heterotrophs.
36What are unicellular fungi called? Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Formative QuestionsWhat are unicellular fungi called?chytridssporesyeastszygomycetes
37What are the cell walls of fungi composed of? Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Formative QuestionsWhat are the cell walls of fungi composed of?cellulosechitinglucosepeptidoglycan
38What are the basic structural units that make Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Formative QuestionsWhat are the basic structural units that makeup the body of all multicellular fungi?fibershyphaemycoplastshaustoria
39What is the part of a mushroom that grows above the ground called? Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Formative QuestionsWhat is the part of a mushroom that growsabove the ground called?the ascocarpthe sporangiumthe fruiting bodythe flowering body
40Which type of fungi are decomposers? Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Formative QuestionsWhich type of fungi are decomposers?mutualistic fungiparasitic fungisaprophytic fungisymbiotic fungi
41Does evidence suggest plants or animals Chapter 20Fungi20.2 Formative QuestionsDoes evidence suggest plants or animalsdiverged with fungi from a common protistancestor?Answer: Evidence suggests that fungi andanimals diverged from a commonprotist ancestor.
42Chytrids were originally grouped with protists. Chapter 20Fungi20.2 Formative QuestionsChytrids were originally grouped with protists.Why have chytrids been reclassified as fungi?Most are aquatic.Some parasitize plants and animals.Their cell walls contain chitin.They produce flagellated spores.
43In what phylum are the mushrooms? Chapter 20Fungi20.2 Formative QuestionsIn what phylum are the mushrooms?Ascomycetes (sac fungi)Basidiomycetes (club fungi)Deuteromycetes (imperfect fungi)Zygomycetes (common molds)
44What is the name for a mutualistic organism Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Formative QuestionsWhat is the name for a mutualistic organismmade up of algae and fungi?ascocarpconidiophorelichenmycorrhiza
45What does the fungus receive from the other Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Formative QuestionsWhat does the fungus receive from the otherpartner in this symbiotic relationship?moisturenutrientsprotectionsupport
46What is the term for an organism that is Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Formative QuestionsWhat is the term for an organism that issensitive to changes in the environment andresponds to changing conditions?bioindicatorbiosensorecoresponderenvirometer
47A mycorrhiza is a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and _______. Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Formative QuestionsA mycorrhiza is a symbiotic relationshipbetween a fungus and _______.a plant roota protistan earthwormhuman skin
48Which is not a form of asexual reproduction? Chapter 20FungiChapter Assessment QuestionsWhich is not a form of asexual reproduction?buddingfragmentationmeiosisspore production
49Name the phyla in which scientists believe the first fungi developed. Chapter 20FungiChapter Assessment QuestionsName the phyla in which scientists believethe first fungi developed.ChytridiomycotaZygomycotaAscomycotaBasidiomycota
50Explain the difference between septate and aseptate hyphae. Chapter 20FungiChapter Assessment QuestionsExplain the difference between septate andaseptate hyphae.Answer: Septa have large pores that allownutrients, cytoplasm, organelles, andnuclei to flow between cells. Aseptatefungi have no septa and this causesrepeated mitosis without cytokinesis.Nutrients flow very quickly through thefungi.
51Why were fungi no longer classified as plants Chapter 20FungiStandardized Test PracticeWhy were fungi no longer classified as plantsand placed in their own kingdom?Fungi are heterotrophs.Fungi are multicellular.Fungi are more similar to protists.Fungi do not have cell walls.
52How are fungi different from animals in the way the obtain nutrients? Chapter 20FungiStandardized Test PracticeHow are fungi different from animals in theway the obtain nutrients?Fungal cells engulf tiny food particles.Fungi digest their food before they ingest it.Fungi feed only on dead organisms andwastes.Fungi use nucleic acids to break downfood particles.
53Which type of hyphae undergoes repeated mitosis without cytokinesis? Chapter 20FungiStandardized Test PracticeWhich type of hyphae undergoes repeatedmitosis without cytokinesis?septate hyphaeaseptate hyphae
54Which stage of reproduction provides greater genetic diversity? Chapter 20FungiStandardized Test PracticeWhich stage of reproduction provides greatergenetic diversity?AB
55fungi not included in this phylogenic tree? Chapter 20FungiStandardized Test PracticeWhy are the imperfectfungi not included in thisphylogenic tree?The group is too diverse.They are not true fungi.They are often classified as sac fungi.They do not have an asexual stage.
56Why are lichens considered pioneer species? Chapter 20FungiStandardized Test PracticeWhy are lichens considered pioneer species?They are able to survive severe drought.They grow in temperate and arctic areas.They help in the colonization of plants.They produce toxic compounds as adefense mechanism.