Presentation on theme: "Chapter 20 Fungi Section 1: Introduction to Fungi"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 20 Fungi Section 1: Introduction to Fungi Section 2: Diversity of FungiSection 3: Ecology of Fungi
2 Characteristics of Fungi Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Introduction to FungiCharacteristics of FungiBelong to the Kingdom FungiUnicellular or multicellularEukaryotic heterotrophsDecomposers
3 Major Features of Fungi Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Introduction to FungiMajor Features of FungiCell wall composed of chitinHyphae form a netlike mass called a mycelium.Hyphae provide a larger surface area for nutrient absorption.
4 Major Features of Fungi Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Introduction to FungiMajor Features of FungiHyphae are divided into cells by cross-walls called septa.
5 Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Introduction to FungiNutrition in FungiSaprophytic fungi are decomposers that recycle nutrients from dead organisms.Parasitic fungi absorb nutrients from the living cells of another organism.Mutualistic fungi live in a mutualistic relationship with another organism.
6 Sexually reproducing fungi produce spores. Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Introduction to FungiReproduction in FungiAsexual reproduction in fungi includes budding, fragmentation, and spore reproduction.Sexually reproducing fungi produce spores.
7 The new cell develops while attached to the parent cell. Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Introduction to FungiBuddingThe new cell develops while attached to the parent cell.The plasma membrane pinches off to separate the new cell and the parent cell.
8 Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Introduction to FungiFragmentationIf the fragments of mycelia land in a location suitable for growing, then the hyphae will grow into a new mycelia.
9 A spore develops into a new organism without the fusion of gametes. Chapter 20Fungi20.1 Introduction to FungiSpore ProductionThe asexual and sexual life cycle of most fungi includes spore production.A spore develops into a new organism without the fusion of gametes.
10 Classification of Fungi Chapter 20Fungi20.2 Diversity of FungiClassification of FungiChytridiomycota (chytrids)Zygomycota (common molds)Ascomycota (sac fungi)Basidiomycota (club fungi)Deuteromycota (imperfect fungi)
11 Characteristics of Chytridiomycota (Chytrids) Chapter 20Fungi20.2 Diversity of FungiCharacteristics of Chytridiomycota (Chytrids)UnicellularMost are aquatic.Some are saprophytic.Produce flagellated spores
12 Characteristics of Zygomycota (Common Molds) Chapter 20Fungi20.2 Diversity of FungiCharacteristics of Zygomycota (Common Molds)MulticellularMost are terrestrial.Many form mutualistic relationships with plants.Reproduce sexually and asexually
13 Life Cycle of Zygomycota (Common Molds) Chapter 20Fungi20.2 Diversity of FungiLife Cycle of Zygomycota (Common Molds)Reproduce both sexually and asexually
14 Characteristics of Ascomycota (Sac Fungi) Chapter 20Fungi20.2 Diversity of FungiCharacteristics of Ascomycota (Sac Fungi)Most are multicellular, but some are unicellular.Variety of habitats; saprophyticParasitic or mutualisticReproduce sexually and asexually
15 Life Cycle of Ascomycota (Sac Fungi) Chapter 20Fungi20.2 Diversity of FungiLife Cycle of Ascomycota (Sac Fungi)Reproduce sexually and asexually
16 Characteristics of Basidiomycota (Club Fungi) Chapter 20Fungi20.2 Diversity of FungiCharacteristics of Basidiomycota (Club Fungi)Multicellular.Most are terrestrial.Saprophytic, parasitic, or mutualisticRarely produce asexually
17 Characteristics of Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi) Chapter 20Fungi20.2 Diversity of FungiCharacteristics of Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi)No sexual stage observed.Very diverse groupMight not be considered a true phylum
18 Fungi and Photosynthesizers Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiFungi and PhotosynthesizersLichens and mycorrhizae are two examples of mutualistic relationships between fungi and other organisms.Mutualism is a type of symbiosis where both organisms benefit from the relationship.
19 A green algae or cyanobacterium provides food for both organisms. Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiLichensProvide a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and an alga or a photosynthetic partner.A green algae or cyanobacterium provides food for both organisms.The fungus provides a web of hyphae in which the algae or cyanobacterium can grow.
20 The fungus provides hyphae where the algae or cyanobacterium can grow. Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiLichensThe fungus provides hyphae where the algae or cyanobacterium can grow.
21 A mutualistic relationship between a fungus and plant root Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiMycorrhizaeA mutualistic relationship between a fungus and plant rootabsorbs and concentrates various minerals for the plant.hyphae increase the plant’s root surface area for absorption.receives carbohydrates and amino acids from the plant.
22 Lichens as Bioindicators Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiLichens as BioindicatorsThey are sensitive to airborne pollutants.When air pollution rises, lichens will often die.
23 Over 25,000 species of lichens Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiDiversity of LichensOver 25,000 species of lichensOnly need light, air, and minerals to growFound in the harshest environments
24 Often they are the pioneer species in an area. Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiDiversity of LichensTo survive drought, they can dry out, stop photosynthesis, and become brittle.Often they are the pioneer species in an area.They help trap soil and fix nitrogen, which helps in the colonization of plants.
25 20.3 Ecology of Fungi Medical Uses of Fungi Penicillium notatum Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiMedical Uses of FungiPenicillium notatumused as a source of penicillinClaviceps purpureaused to reduce high blood pressureto control excessive bleedingto treat migraine headachesto promote contractions during birthTolypocladium inflatumthe source for cyclosporineCyclosporine is an immune suppressant drug.
26 Mushrooms we eat are fungi. Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiFungi and FoodMushrooms we eat are fungi.Yeast makes bread rise.Truffles are fungi.The flavors of some cheese are the result of fungi.
27 Fungi and Bioremediation Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiFungi and BioremediationFungi are mixed with water or soil where they decompose organic materials in pollutants.The pollutants are broken down into harmless substances.
28 kills American elm trees Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiHarmful FungiCeratocystis ulmikills American elm treesEndothia parasiticakills American chestnut treesLeptoterochilia medicaginiscauses leaf blotch in alfalfa
29 Fungi can parasitize humans and other animals. Chapter 20Fungi20.3 Ecology of FungiHarmful FungiFungi can parasitize humans and other animals.Cordyceps militaris can infect butterflies and moths.Athlete’s foot, ringworm, yeast infections, and oral thrush are infections in humans.
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