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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select “View”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show.” To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lesson’s presentation. You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key. How to Use This Presentation

2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter Presentation TransparenciesStandardized Test Prep Visual Concepts Resources

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Fungi Chapter 26 Table of Contents Section 1 Overview of Fungi Section 2 Classification of Fungi Section 3 Fungi and Humans

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Overview of Fungi Chapter 26 Objectives List the characteristics of fungi. Describe how fungi obtain nutrients. Distinguish between hyphae and a mycelium. Compare the ways fungi reproduce. Describe one hypothesis about the origin of fungi.

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Overview of Fungi Chapter 26 Characteristics Fungi are eukaryotic, nonphotosynthetic organisms that can be unicellular or multicellular in form.

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Overview of Fungi Chapter 26 Characteristics, continued Obtaining Nutrients –Fungi are among the most important decomposers of organic matter. –Fungi obtain nutrients by secreting enzymes and absorbing simple organic molecules from their environment.

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Overview of Fungi Chapter 26 Characteristics, continued Structure of Fungi –Fungi are made up of short filaments called hyphae. Mats of hyphae are called mycelium. Some species have partitions called septa in their hyphae, making individual cells. –Fungal cell walls contain chitin rather than cellulose, which is found in plant cell walls.

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 26 Characteristics of Fungi Section 1 Overview of Fungi

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 26 Hyphae in Fungi Section 1 Overview of Fungi

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 26 Body Structure of Fungi Section 1 Overview of Fungi

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Overview of Fungi Chapter 26 Reproduction Most fungi reproduce both asexually and sexually.

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Overview of Fungi Chapter 26 Reproduction, continued Asexual Reproduction –Asexually, fungi produce thousands of genetically identical haploid spores, usually on modified cells of the hyphae. –When these spores are placed in favorable environmental conditions, they germinate and grow new hyphae, each of which can form a mycelium and produce thousands of new asexual spores.

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Overview of Fungi Chapter 26 Reproduction, continued Sexual Reproduction –Fungi occur in mating types that are sometimes called minus and plus. –When two different mating types of the same species encounter one another, the hyphae of one mating type fuse with the hyphae of the opposite mating type. –These fused hyphae give rise to a specialized structure, which produces and scatters genetically diverse spores.

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 26 Sexual Reproduction Section 1 Overview of Fungi

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Overview of Fungi Chapter 26 Evolution Fungi evolved about 460 million years ago. Fungi probably evolved from endosymbiotic prokaryotes and then adapted to various terrestrial environments.

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Classification of Fungi Chapter 26 Objectives List characteristics that distinguish three phyla of fungi. Compare the life cycles of zygomycetes, basidiomycetes, and ascomycetes. Distinguish between mycorrhizae and lichens. Explain the importance of mycorrhizae and lichens to the environment.

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 26 Types of Fungi Section 2 Classification of Fungi

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Classification of Fungi Chapter 26 Phylum Zygomycota The phylum Zygomycota is coenocytic (their hyphae lack septa). Asexual sporangiospores form within sacs called sporangia. Sexual reproduction results in zygospores.

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 26 Life Cycle of Zygomycetes Section 2 Classification of Fungi

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 26 Asexual Reproduction in Zygomycetes Section 2 Classification of Fungi

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 26 Sexual Reproduction in Zygomycetes Section 2 Classification of Fungi

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Classification of Fungi Chapter 26 Phylum Basidiomycota The phylum Basidiomycota includes mushrooms. Mushrooms are spore-bearing, aboveground sexual reproductive structures called basidiocarps. Basidiocarps produce small, clublike reproductive structures called basidia, on which basidiospores form.

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 26 Structure of a Mushroom Section 2 Classification of Fungi

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 26 Parts of a Mushroom Section 2 Classification of Fungi

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 26 Life Cycle of Basidiomycetes Section 2 Classification of Fungi

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 26 Sexual Reproduction in Basidiomycetes Section 2 Classification of Fungi

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Classification of Fungi Chapter 26 Phylum Ascomycota Most fungi are in the phylum Ascomycota, or sac fungi. Hyphae form a cup-shaped ascocarp, in which ascospores form. Yeast are unicellular Ascomycota and they reproduce asexually by budding. –Yeast are used in brewing, baking, and genetic engineering.

28 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 26 Life Cycle of Ascomycetes Section 2 Classification of Fungi

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 26 Penicilliium Mold Section 2 Classification of Fungi

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 26 Asexual Reproduction in Ascomycetes Section 2 Classification of Fungi

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 26 Sexual Reproduction in Ascomycetes Section 2 Classification of Fungi

32 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Classification of Fungi Chapter 26 Phylum Ascomycota, continued Deuteromycota –Fungi that do not have a sexual stage are classified in a group called fungi imperfecti, or deuteromycota.

33 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Classification of Fungi Chapter 26 Mycorrhizae and Lichens Mycorrhizae are symbiotic structures that form between plant roots and a fungus. The fungus provides certain ions and other nutrients to the plant and, in turn, the fungus gets sugars from the plant.

34 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Classification of Fungi Chapter 26 Mycorrhizae and Lichens, continued Lichens represent symbiotic relationships between fungi and photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria or green algae.

35 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Fungi and Humans Chapter 26 Objectives Describe three ways that fungi cause disease in humans. List three ways that fungi contribute to good health. Provide examples of fungi’s industrial importance. List three types of food that fungi provide.

36 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Fungi and Humans Chapter 26 Human Fungal Diseases Fungi can cause disease in humans when humans inhale airborne spores, when they eat food contaminated by toxic fungi, when toxic fungi come in contact with skin, or when they accidentally eat poisonous mushrooms.

37 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Fungi and Humans Chapter 26 Human Fungal Diseases Common Fungal Infections –Examples of common fungal infections include ringworm, athlete’s foot, and yeast infection.

38 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Fungi and Humans Chapter 26 Human Fungal Diseases, continued Other Fungal Illnesses Pathogenic fungi that cause serious disease include Histoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Coccidioides immitis. H. capsulatum is associated with bird feces.

39 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Fungi and Humans Chapter 26 Fungi in Industry Various fungi are used in the production of vitamin B 2, cortisone, penicillin and other antibiotics, and some genetically engineered drugs.

40 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Fungi and Humans Chapter 26 Fungi in Industry, continued Fungi and Food Industries –Fungi are used in the production of familiar foods such as cheeses, bread, beer, wines, and soy products.

41 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice 1. What are fungi that feed on decaying organic matter called? A. parasites B. mutualists C. symbionts D. saprophytes Standardized Test Prep Chapter 26

42 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 1. What are fungi that feed on decaying organic matter called? A. parasites B. mutualists C. symbionts D. saprophytes Standardized Test Prep Chapter 26

43 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2. Lichens represent a symbiotic association between a fungus and which other type of organism? F. an alga G. a plant H. a mold J. a rhizoid Standardized Test Prep Chapter 26

44 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2. Lichens represent a symbiotic association between a fungus and which other type of organism? F. an alga G. a plant H. a mold J. a rhizoid Standardized Test Prep Chapter 26

45 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3. In a mycorrhiza, a fungus lives in a symbiotic relationship with which of the following? A. a virus B. a plant C. a bacterium D. a slime mold Standardized Test Prep Chapter 26

46 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3. In a mycorrhiza, a fungus lives in a symbiotic relationship with which of the following? A. a virus B. a plant C. a bacterium D. a slime mold Standardized Test Prep Chapter 26

47 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued The diagram below shows the fruiting bodies of a type of fungus. Use the diagram to answer the questions that follow. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 26

48 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 4. What is the structure labeled X called? F. a hypha G. a zygote H. a sporangium J. a sporangiospore Standardized Test Prep Chapter 26

49 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 4. What is the structure labeled X called? F. a hypha G. a zygote H. a sporangium J. a sporangiospore Standardized Test Prep Chapter 26

50 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 5. To what phylum does the fungus in the diagram above belong? A. Ascomycota B. Zygomycota C. Basidiomycota D. fungi imperfecti Standardized Test Prep Chapter 26

51 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 5. To what phylum does the fungus in the diagram above belong? A. Ascomycota B. Zygomycota C. Basidiomycota D. fungi imperfecti Standardized Test Prep Chapter 26

52 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 6. septa : septum :: asci : F. ascus G. ascocarp H. ascospore J. ascogonium Standardized Test Prep Chapter 26

53 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 6. septa : septum :: asci : F. ascus G. ascocarp H. ascospore J. ascogonium Standardized Test Prep Chapter 26

54 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued The diagram below shows the typical structure of a member of the phylum Basidiomycota. Use the diagram below to answer the question that follows. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 26

55 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 7. Which structure is responsible for meeting the food requirements of the organism shown? A. F B. G C. H D. J Standardized Test Prep Chapter 26

56 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 7. Which structure is responsible for meeting the food requirements of the organism shown? A. F B. G C. H D. J Standardized Test Prep Chapter 26

57 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Short Response Fungi are important decomposers that break down organic matter. Explain how fungi contribute to nutrient recycling in the environment. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 26

58 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Short Response, continued Fungi are important decomposers that break down organic matter. Explain how fungi contribute to nutrient recycling in the environment. Answer: Fungi break down organic compounds in decaying material, making the chemicals available for other organisms. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 26

59 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Standardized Test Prep Chapter 26 Extended Response Base your answers to parts A & B on the information below. Fungi are major competitors with humans for food. Part A Explain what needs humans and fungi have in common. Part B Explain why fungi could easily win the battle for nutrients.

60 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Standardized Test Prep Chapter 26 Extended Response, continued Answer: Part A Fungi and humans both need water and other nutrients from the environment. They both depend on autotrophs for food. Part B Fungi are able to reproduce more rapidly than humans.


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