Presentation on theme: "Fungi A spore stalk from a fungus that killed a carpenter ant grew upward from the ants head."— Presentation transcript:
Fungi A spore stalk from a fungus that killed a carpenter ant grew upward from the ants head.
All Fungi are…. eukaryotic heterotrophs What does eukaryotic mean? What is a heterotroph?
Categories of Fungi 1.Multicellular –Most fungi –Do not contain chloroplasts –Honey mushroom 2.Unicellular –Yeasts
Cell Walls Plants - made of cellulose Fungi - made of chitin –Chitin is strong and flexible
Fungi Parts - Hyphae Threadlike filaments that make up the basic structure of the fungis body (all parts) Provide support Provide a large surface area for nutrient absorption
Fungi Parts - Mycelium A netlike mass made up many hyphae Formed below ground Absorb nutrients
Fungi Parts - Fruiting Body Reproductive structure Above ground portion
Obtaining Nutrients & Energy 1.Through Decomposition Saprophytic fungi - feeds on dead organisms or organic wastes Recycle nutrients
Obtaining Nutrients & Energy 2. Through Parasitism –Absorb nutrients from living cells of another organisms (a host) These parasitic fungi grow thread-like mycelium throughout the tree on which they grow. The mycelium steal nutrients from the tree, and cause damage to the structure of the tree.
Obtaining Nutrients & Energy 3. Through Mutualism –With another organism, such as a plant or alga –Ex: mycelia on a root of a soybean plant Fungus receives sugar from the host plant Mycelia increase water uptake and mineral absorption for the host plant
Asexual Reproduction Budding –New cell develops while attached to parent cell
Asexual Reproduction Fragmentation –The mycelium of a fungus is broken off or fragmented –Can grow into new mycelia
Reproduction Spore - a reproductive cell, haploid, has a hard outer coat, will develop into a new organism, produce new hyphae –Asexual reproduction Sexual reproduction –Produce spores though meiosis
Branches of Fungi 1.Chytrids yeast 2.Common Molds bread mold 3.Sac Fungi morels & truffles, yeast 4.Club Fungi Mushrooms 5.Imperfect Fungi Penicillium Great Barred Frog infected with the chytrid fungus Truffle (fungus) Bread Mold Mushrooms
Chytrids DNA and protein sequences more similar to fungi than protists Chitin-containing cell walls
Common Molds Stolons: –Hyphae that spread across the surface of food Rhizoids: –Penetrates the food and absorbs nutrients
Sac Fungi Conidiophores –Spores form at the tips, so they are easily dispersed by wind, water and animals (Most spores form inside the sporangia, not at the tip)
Club Fungi Dikaryotic mycelia –Each cell has two nuclei
Club Fungi Reproduce sexually: 1.Form a basidiocarp (fruiting body) 2.Hyphae (basidia) produce spores 3.Two nuclei fuse to form a dipoid nucleus 4.Divides by meiosis into 4 haploid spores 5.Dispersed by wind, water, animals
Imperfect Fungi Very diverse group Lack a sexual stage of reproduction –Called Imperfect Fungi –Most fungi reproduce both asexually and sexually
Lichens Symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a alga –Fungus provides protection –The alga provides food (photosynthesis)
Lichens are Bioindicators Very sensitive to changes in environmental conditions By observing lichen populations and their health, we can monitor the effects of pollution in an area –More pollution Fewer lichens –Less pollution More lichens
Benefits of Fungi Decomposers - recycle nutrients Medical uses - penicillin (antibiotic), reduce high blood pressure, control excessive bleeding, treat migtaine headaches, promote contractions during childbirth, prevent organ rejection in organ transplant patients Food - mushrooms, yeast, truffles Bioremediation - cleaning the environment of pollutants
Harmful Fungi American elm trees & American chestnut trees killed by certain fungi Agricultural crops damaged Can act as parasites in humans & other organisms –Athletes foot, ringworm, yeast infections
Moldy Bread Why should you throw away the whole loaf of bread, even if the mold only appeared on one piece?