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Mary Jane Weiss, Ph.D., BCBA September, 2008

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1 Mary Jane Weiss, Ph.D., BCBA September, 2008
Building a Comprehensive ABA Program: Integrating More Naturalistic Strategies Mary Jane Weiss, Ph.D., BCBA September, 2008

2 Our goals for today To introduce you to a variety of useful teaching strategies within the field of ABA, including the naturalistic strategies To focus on the use of the Verbal Behavior language classification system and to describe the benefits of this system for building the spontaneous use and generalization of skills

3 What are the core characteristics of ABA?
Interventions based on empirically validated research Highly individualized instruction Ongoing assessment and data collection Data-driven decision making

4 What are the core characteristics of ABA?
Assessment of outcome is based on skill acquisition, maintenance over time, and generalization to real-life settings Significant role for significant others A humanistic approach focused on quality of life and meaningful change

5 What makes ABA so effective?
Specificity of goals Linked to a thorough assessment Data based decision making Dynamic programming Intensity Ratio Hours Number of learning opportunities

6 What teaching methods are under the ABA umbrella?
Shaping Task Analysis/Chaining Discrete Trial Instruction Incidental Teaching Pivotal Response Training Natural Environment Training Rate-building for fluency

7 Discrete Trial Instruction

8 What is Discrete Trial Instruction?
Discrete Trial Instruction is a special form of teaching used to maximize learning for students who struggle with more traditional teaching methods, and who require repetition to learn. Discrete Trial Instruction relies heavily on the antecedents and consequences of behavior. Discrete Trial Instruction differs from other instructional methods because it relies heavily on intensity and structure.

9 DTI- An Historical Perspective
Based on the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis and operant learning/conditioning (Skinner, Bear, Bijou, Lovaas, Long...) 1. Understanding behavior by analyzing environmental factors. 2. Systematically manipulating antecedents/ consequences to modify adaptive/maladaptive behavior. Specifically “coined” Discrete Trial Instruction by Koegel, Russo, and Rincover, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1977 Designed to be a formal, exact unit of teaching which is: a single teaching moment a systematic shaping process to build complex behaviors a “step by step upward progression”

10 The DTI Model The term “Discrete” stresses the need to recognize each individual teaching moment as separate and distinct. Each trial has a definite beginning and end. Discrete Trial Instruction breaks down tasks into specific, focused instructional demands. The format of Discrete Trial Instruction is very conducive to systematic data collection and tracking of student performance. Highly effective Has been in use for 30 years Very successful in teaching a wide variety of skills

11 What is a Discrete Trial?
A sequenced form of instruction SD (instruction) Response Consequence

12 How has DTI changed? Not just blocks of trials Interspersals
Shorter inter-trial intervals Using errorless learning

13 What is errorless learning?
Errors are prevented Use a most to least prompt hierarchy Errors are interrupted

14 What is task interspersal?
Presentations of previously learned maintenance tasks are co-mingled with the presentation of acquisition tasks

15 What do we know about the effectiveness of interspersal?
Higher percentages of correct responding on acquisition tasks when maintenance tasks are interspersed (vs. when only a single acquisition task is presented) (Dunlap & Koegel, 1980) Interspersal must include maintenance tasks. Merely interspersing several acquisition tasks does not facilitate learning (Dunlap, 1984) Benefits of interspersal have been demonstrated across populations (Koegel & Koegel, 1996)

16 Why else should we consider interspersal?
More naturalistic, as one can not predict questions to be posed in everyday interactions It prevents “automatic” responding, based on repetitive trials of a single item or a particular program It reduces frustration for the learner Facilitates response, as behavioral momentum is built

17 Why do we need DTI? Many skills require repetition
Many students will easily learn new skills in this format It is conducive to teaching skills that are not intrinsically motivating

18 What are the potential drawbacks or limitations of DTI?
Difficult to generalize skills (requires special consideration in planning) May lead to overemphasis of the SD-R format of programming Learners may not find instruction inherently rewarding

19 Discussion Joey’s parents are teaching him dressing. They do multiple repetitions of buttoning every day after school, usually about 10 times. What are the advantages to this approach? What else might they do to teach buttoning or other dressing skills?

20 Discussion Miranda’s teachers want her to ask others what is wrong when they express distress. So, while seated at 1:1 instruction, they pretend to cry and prompt her to ask what is wrong. They usually do this as a program, with about 5 to 10 trials at a time. What are the advantages to teaching this skill this way? What are the disadvantages to teaching this skill this way?

21 What are other ABA methods used to teach skills?
There are a variety of ABA methods which are naturalistic in approach Naturalistic ABA strategies have been emphasized for many years, and have evolved and become more sophisticated over time Incidental Teaching, the Natural Language Paradigm, and Pivotal Response Training all are naturalistic ABA strategies Natural Environment Training is a naturalistic strategy that uses the VB classification system

22 Naturalistic ABA Strategies
Incidental Teaching has been an ABA method in use for over 25 years “Incidental teaching is used to get elaborated language by waiting for a person to initiate a conversation about a topic and then responding in ways that ask for more language from that person (Hart & Risley, 1982).

23 Incidental Teaching……….
A natural environment is arranged to attract the student to desired materials The student initiates the teaching by indicating an interest (gesturally or verbally) The teacher prompts an elaboration The correct response to the prompt provides access

24 Incidental Teaching……..
Part of best practice ABA Includes many “communicative temptations” eating a desired food in front of student engaging in a desired activity putting an object out of reach set up situations requiring “help”

25 What does incidental teaching do?
Makes use of the natural environment Capitalizes on periods of high motivation to facilitate learning Makes use of naturally occurring reinforcers Reinforces an important class of behaviors (initiations)

26 Naturalistic ABA Teaching Strategies
Natural Language Paradigm and Pivotal Response Training are ABA methodologies which have emphasized naturalistic teaching for over 20 years Associated with a number of researchers Koegel, O’Dell, & Koegel, 1987 Laski, Charlop, & Schreibman, 1988 Koegel, Koegel, & Surrat, 1992

27 Natural Language Paradigm and Pivotal Response Training
Natural Language Paradigm and Pivotal Response Training have emphasized the use of intrinsically motivating materials teaching in natural contexts focusing on the individual’s interests to guide language instruction

28 Natural Language Paradigm
Involves items chosen by the child variations in instructional targets every few trials loose shaping contingencies natural reinforcers Playful, informal interactions

29 Natural Environment Training
Conducted in typical environment Designed for younger students Uses Skinner’s analysis of Verbal Behavior to develop an instructional model and curricular progression Was developed by Sundberg & Partington Described in their book, Teaching Language to Children with Autism or Other Developmental Disabilities

30 How do Discrete Trial Instruction and Naturalistic Strategies Differ?
Naturalistic ABA Instruction Who initiates learning opportunity? Instructor Student Where does it occur? Structured Setting Natural Is it planned? Definitely To varying extents Does it involve repetition? Yes Sometimes What is the nature of the reward? Extrinsic Rewards Natural Rewards

31 Activity How do you use naturalistic strategies to teach -shoe tying
-answering social questions -playing card games What are the advantages and disadvantages to teaching these skills naturalistically?

32 Why should we learn about Verbal Behavior classifications?
It teaches us about the functions of language All of the functions need to be addressed long-term When all functions are addressed, language programming is more comprehensive Research has indicated that skills do not transfer across functions (i.e. a child may be able to label but not request)

33 What is “Verbal Behavior?”
Verbal Behavior = Behavior Verbal Behavior that is learned via the same mechanisms as other behavior Reinforcement Punishment A-B-C

34 How is it different? In Verbal Behavior, reinforcement is mediated by another person It is social It involves more than one person, not just the person and the environment

35 “Behavior” versus “Verbal Behavior”
C Thirst Get water from faucet Drink water Ask mom for water

36 What about this example?
C Thirst Pull mom to sink and cry Drink water

37 Skinner’s focus Skinner focused on the development of expressive behaviors Expressive behaviors involve the individual as SPEAKER

38 Why is it important in Autism?
Theory Tool for analysis What’s working What’s not working Implications for teaching Related to core deficits Emphasis on environment Focus on function

39 What do we mean by function?
What determines or controls the response or behavior? What is the antecedent? What is the consequence? What is the form of the response?

40 Briefest descriptions of Skinner’s expressive behaviors
Mand: request Tact: label Intraverbal: to and fro conversational exchange Echoic: verbal imitation

41 What is the most important element?
What controls the speaker’s response Echoic – matches what the person hears Mand – specifies what the person wants Tact – communicates what the person sees, hears, tastes, smells Intraverbal – responds to what person hears & does not match

42 Teaching language by function
Teaching within a verbal behavior model addresses EACH verbal operant specifically Research has shown that for children with autism, skills do not necessarily transfer across function Prompts are introduced and faded systematically to try to achieve “pure” operants

43 Why is this important in Autism?
Deficits in all functions of language are common Manding is important to increase spontaneity and balance other teacher-directed ABA teaching methods Intraverbals build reciprocity and the foundation of social interactions Echoics can address issues of articulation, intelligibility, and pacing Tacting can increase commenting skills

44 How is this new & different?
Skinner’s organization of language is based on function rather than form Teaching addresses function specifically Highlights need to teach each function separately

45 Other categories of language important in Natural Environment Training
Receptive: following instructions or complying with the mands of others Imitation: copying someone’s motor movements RFFC: identifying items when given some description (its features, function, or class)

46 Expressive and Receptive Skills
Echoic Mand Tact Intraverbal Receptive Motor imitation Receptive identification RFFC Receptive by Feature Function Class

47 Let’s get specific about Manding
A type of verbal behavior where the response is controlled by a motivational variable

48 Manding A Mand names its reinforcer
A Mand benefits the speaker by satisfying EO/MO’s by obtaining specific reinforcement A Mand allows the speaker to affect his or her environment

49 The importance of Manding
Manding skills allow the individual to spontaneously request items that are needed and items that are desired Manding has traditionally received little attention in DTI programs

50 The importance of Manding
Mand training enables the instructor to know what functions as reinforcement Mand training enables the instructor to establish oneself as an agent of reinforcement

51 Mands Mands can be vocal or nonvocal All Mands are verbal behavior

52 How is Manding taught? Manding is often taught initially through the use of Manding sessions Free from demands Exposure to highly preferred items Enticement with highly preferred items Focus on pairing request with access to items Focus on building instructor as an agent of reinforcement

53 Other elements of Manding to address
Complexity of communication Eye contact with instructor Use of variety of carrier phrases (later)

54 Benefits of Mand training
Teaches requesting skills Increases learner initiation Builds spontaneity Balances the programmatic focus on responding to SD’s Pairs instructor and instructional setting with reinforcement

55 Benefits of Mand training
Instructor always knows what will function as a reinforcer Decreases challenging behaviors Appropriate requesting skills reduce the need to request through disruptive behaviors Appropriate requesting skills reduce learner frustration (They provide a means of influencing the environment!)

56 Manding can always be part of the curriculum
Manding should be incorporated into work sessions More complex forms of manding should be included in goals and objectives An analysis of effective manding should be ongoing

57 Data on Manding sessions
Usually track independent Mands and prompted Mands Over time, independent mands should increase Can develop a goal for the number of Mands in a session As number is achieved, other elements of the Manding response can be targeted MOST IMPORTANT DATA: Full day mands

58 Why focus on full day manding?
TRANSFER TO THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT IS CRITICALY IMPORTANT Functional manding Spontaneous mands Can still be broken into independent vs. prompted, if useful

59 Capturing and contriving EO’s/MO’s
Capturing an EO involves capitalizing on the EO as it occurs naturally in the environment Contriving an EO involves manipulating some object or event that alters the value of another object or event as reinforcement

60 Contriving EO’s/MO’s Blocked Response Interrupted Chain
an action can not be initiated, due to a missing tool eating, drinking implements arts and crafts tasks Interrupted Chain a chained action can not be completed, due to a missing item puzzles matching tasks

61 Manding for Information using EO’s/MO’s
In these applications, an EO is used to make the information reinforcing. The student can ask……. The nature of a surprise reward (what?) The location of a reinforcing item (where?) The time a preferred activity will be happening (when?) The person who has the item (who?)

62 Manding for help A highly useful skill, especially for instructional contexts where teacher attention is lower Should be expanded to use of peers How can this be done? Can be used with a vocal or nonvocal response

63 Manding for attention Can be used with a vocal or nonvocal response
Has major implications for the reduction of challenging behaviors

64 Manding for a break Tremendous implications for the reduction of challenging behaviors Can be taught as a vocal or nonvocal response Overuse is not as significant a problem as instructors fear

65 Most important messages
ABA includes multiple formal and naturalistic teaching strategies VB is a language classification system and an ANALYTICAL TOOL Addressing all verbal operants ensures comprehensive programming Pacing is important but not the only variable to consider We must attempt more thematic instruction to aid generalization

66 Defective and Effective Manding
What is a functional mand? Reduces negative behavior Associated with reduced dependence on prompts Generalizes across people, settings, materials Can be used to teach new skills

67 Defective and Effective Manding
Sundberg has discussed the concept of defective manding as a language acquisition barrier (Cosac conference, 2004) What is a defective mand? Not associated with reduced need for prompts Associated with negative behavior Not always linked to an MO Behavior may indicate different desired item

68 Why is manding sometimes defective?
No MO in effect for targeted item Failure to assess Failure to vary Response effort may be too great May be the wrong prompt May be bound to/dependent on certain prompts

69 Why else can mand training not succeed?
There may be insufficient practice or inadequate generalization of expectation There may be free access to reinforcers Negative behavior may function as mands A single topography may function as a mand No need for specific request

70 Why else mand training may not succeed?
A small group of mands may have a strong history of reinforcement Verbal stimulus acquires control and blocks MO control Evokes rote intraverbal response One request Very few requests Repeated requests even when satiated

71 Reasons for defective manding (continued)
Scrolling has been reinforced Behaviors compete with other MO’s Self-stimulatory behaviors

72 Interventions for defective manding
Verbal SD has acquired control and blocks MO control Choice procedures Drop verbal SD Add a non-verbal prompt (e.g., treat box) Add a written prompt Add a neutral verbal stimulus (e.g., pick one) Intersperse trials of “What do you want?”

73 An specific ideas for reducing dependence on verbal SD
Make it a visual task Teach sight words for all reinforcers Practice exchange of card for reward

74 Other ideas for defective manding
More preference assessments More variability in what is offered as rewards Check response effort Expect manding in all settings one acquired Match prompt to learner Do not reinforce scrolling

75 Other ideas for defective manding
Do correspondence checks Limit access to reinforcers Ensure that negative behaviors are not treated as mands

76 Assess for Motivational Operations
Some ways to assess for MO’s Does the mand occur without verbal or nonverbal control? Is the item selected in free access? Is there a short latency to accessing manded item? Does the student search for item if made unavailable?

77 Defective manding Can occur at any stage of mand training
Is often not evaluated Completely changes the learner’s experience Impacts negatively on learning

78 Why focus on naturalistic instruction?
Spontaneity Generalizability Transfer to the natural environment

79 How can we collect data on naturalistic instruction?
Duration Prompting Latency % of opportunities

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