Presentation on theme: "ABA and Discrete Trial Teaching"— Presentation transcript:
1 ABA and Discrete Trial Teaching Amy Buie, M. Ed., BCBAAndrea Bowen, B.S., BCABAThe Center for Autism EducationPO Box 275O’Fallon, MO 63366Phone: (636)Fax: (636)
2 Agenda Applied Behavior Analysis The Discrete Trial Reinforcement Errorless Learning/Time Delay PromptingBlockingError Correction(practice)Data CollectionPutting it All Together(practice)Assessment
3 What Is ABA? Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) The application of principles of behavior to produce measurable change in behavior through the manipulation of the environmentIdentify functional relationships between behavior and the environment
4 How Does ABA Relate To Autism? Incorporates behavior analytic principles to the applied settingFocus on positive reinforcement to increase appropriate behaviorBreaks down learning tasks into the simplest components in order to develop more complex skills
5 How Does Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) Relate To ABA? Discrete trial is one way to implement ABA. Behavior principles are used in a 1:1 setting to increase appropriate behavior and decrease inappropriate behaviorSkills often targeted in DTT include attending skills, imitation, receptive skills, expressive skills and pre-academic skills
6 ABA vs. Discrete Trial Teaching As soon as you target a socially significant skill/behavior and measure it to see how the behavior changed (or if it changed at all), you are using APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS.During DISCRETE TRIAL, you are systematically teaching skills (for example, matching pictures), measuring those skills by taking data – and so it is a part of ABA. Think of ABA as an UMBRELLA term for many techniques to fall under. One strategy to help change behavior is through the use of DISCRETE TRIALS
8 Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) Fosters learning through repetitionIsolates skills and teaches them in their smallest necessary components to foster learning of more complex conceptsMakes contingencies as clear as possibleHelps ensure implementers maintain consistency across each otherAids in data collectionShould be only one component of a broad program for children with autism spectrum disorders
9 Example of a Discrete Trial TrainerTrainee-Put toy on table-Say “touch ____”-Give student 1-3 seconds to respond-If correct, say “good job!”-Take toy off table-CONGRATULATIONS! You’ve just run your first discrete trial!
10 Advantages of Discrete Trial Teaches “Learning how to learn”Joint attentionImitationBehaviorCommunicationSocial interaction
11 Advantages of Discrete Trial Gains child’s attentionTeaches compliance AND that this is rewardingThe overall program is flexible and is designed to meet the needs of each individuals unique set of circumstances and level of functioningProgresses at the child’s rate of masteryDevelops a pattern for learningForces interactions
12 Advantages of Discrete Trial, cont. Teaches a wide variety of skills and conceptsSkills are observable and measurableIncorporates all domains of functioning – everything builds upon each other
13 Potential Concerns of Discrete Trial Training Training is expensive and time consumingImplementation of techniques must be consistent and poor implementation can result in many frustrations with both the instructor and the student and the student may not gain any skillsPoor implementation can result in students who are prompt dependent or have memorized rote skills with no generalizationThere may not be enough instructors available to provide 1:1 instructionSpace may be limited and distractions may be difficult to omit
14 When Implementing DTTWork area is typically free of distractions (other materials, reinforcers, etc.)Begin with find a motivating reinforcer*Use 3 Target items unless program is limited. For example, “What’s your name?”
15 Components of a Discrete Trial InstructionResponseConsequencePauseThe trial itself is DISCRETE with a clear beginning and end, which is why it is called a DISCRETE TRIAL (we are also teaching discrete skills).
16 Discrete Trial: Instruction Sd Definition-The instruction or anything that evokes a responseRules:Get attention FIRSTLouder than typical speechClear and concise languageClear: “come here” instead of “commere”Concise: “touch shoe” instead of “touch the shoe on the table”4. Only say directive once before getting a response
17 Discrete Trial: Response Definition: What the child does immediately after the SdCorrect Response1. Responds correctly to the Sd (make sure everyone is accepting the same response)Prompted Response1. Full2. PartialError1. Wrong Answer2. No Response3.Problematic behavior4. Dual or Paired Response-
18 Discrete Trial: Consequence Consequence is what happens after the responseMust immediately follow the response- The more immediate the consequence, the better connection the child will make between the Sd and the responseCorrect: Deliver Positive ReinforcementError: Block
19 What is Reinforcement?Reinforcement is the procedure of using a reinforcer to increase the rate of a behaviorA reinforcer is anything that follows a behavior and increases the probability of that behaviorReinforcement is the building block and foundation of an effective ABA program.Use continuous reinforcement for new skillsUse intermittent reinforcement to maintain behaviors over time
20 Correct Response & Reinforcement Be sure what you are using as a reinforcer is truly reinforcing to the childValue of reinforcement vs. effort/difficulty of taskContingentAlways keep interactive and include social praise (this is where you should use the child’s name)Vary reinforcementPairingThink out of the boxIncorporate sensory activities
21 Correct Response & Reinforcement, Cont. Watch for satiationKeep things new and excitingStrategies: preference assessment, observation, interview, switch out toys in boxes
22 Discrete Trial: Pause Basically a brief pause 1-3 seconds long Helps the child see that it is the end of one opportunity for reinforcement and we are about to begin another opportunity to receive reinforcementLong enough to make this connection, but not long enough to allow time to engage in other behaviorsGives instructors time to mix up or reset the field for the next trial and time to take data
23 Errorless Learning Prompting procedure for teaching new skills Decreases or eliminates opportunity for learner to make errorsReduced practicing incorrect responsesSystematically fades promptsReduces frustration and emotional responsesResearch shows errors lead to further errors and emotional responses, can be difficult to correct and inhibit generalization
24 How Do We Reduce Errors?When teaching a new skill, the learner is given the most experience necessary to ensure that he or she responds correctly and the response can be reinforcedIf an error occurs, an error correction procedure is implemented, reducing the likelihood of another error will occur
25 Time Delay Prompting*O- second prompt delay – prompt occurs as the SD is delivered2-second prompt delay- prompt is delivered 2 seconds after the SD4 second Delay-prompt is delivered 4 seconds after the SDNo prompt-Student should not be prompted after a 5-second delay. If the student has no response it is counted as an error and the error correction procedure is initiated. Block errors.
26 Prompting* Prompt can be full or partial Only provide as much assistance as is required to ensure a correct responseFade prompts with in a single time delayMost to least intrusive*Physical(full)Model(partial)Gesture(partial)Verbal(partial)Within Stimulus
27 Data Collection Target multiple items at a time within each program Each block contains 3-5 trials. Implementers typically complete at least 1 block per target per hour.All 3 current items will be placed in “field” at once and can be placed in any position.
28 Data CollectionFull Prompt: 100% of the correct response is presented to the learnerPartial Prompt: Learner provides at least some of the responseIndependent: Learner responds correctly and independently within 5 seconds(if in the “no prompt” delay of the directiveError: Learner responds or attempts to respond incorrectly or does NOT respond within 5 seconds ( if in the “no prompt” delay ) of the directive
29 Criteria When your block is finished: Advance Criteria: Move up a delay after 3 “I” or “p” responses in a boxRegress criteria: Move back a delay after 2 errors in a rowCriteria to stay: Stay at current delay id block does not meet either criteria mentioned aboveMastery criteria: An item is mastered once the student receives a pre-determined % accuracy across multiple block in a row-
30 What if They Go to Make a Mistake? Always block when possible. Sometimes we're not fast enough and that's okay.AVOID hand over hand guidance to the correct answerAVOID allowing the student to make the wrong answer by BLOCKING errorsIf the student moves towards the incorrect target, block by putting the students hand back in lap.
31 Blocking Cont. Use blocking on levels 2, 4 and no prompt. Use blocking during the correction procedure on the independent probe.Blocking is recorded as an error anytime it occurs.
32 Error CorrectionIf the student goes towards an incorrect answer, use blocking and begin error correction procedure.Never prompt during the independent opportunity during the error correction procedure.
33 ERROR CORRECTION WITH A CORRECT RESPONSE ON INDEPENDENT PROBE Step 1. Error is blocked. Record error.Step 2. Remove materials and turn away for 2 secondsStep 3. Re-present the Sd with an immediate prompt (0-second delay)The prompt should be intrusive enough to produce a correct response.Step 4. Provide reinforcement (praise only)Step 5. Re-present the directive a second time, giving the learner and “independent opportunity” with a 5-second wait (e.g. no prompt). If correct, record only the first error.
35 ERROR CORRECTION WITH ERROR ON INDEPENDENT PROBE* Step 1. Error is blocked. Record as Error.Step 2. Remove materials and turn away for 2 secondsStep 3. Re-present the Sd with an immediate prompt (0-second delay)The prompt should be intrusive enough to produce a correct response.Step 4. Provide reinforcement (praise only)Step 5. Re-present the directive a second time, giving the learner and “independent opportunity” at 5-second wait (e.g. no prompt)Step 6. If student goes to make an error, BLOCK. Remove materials and turn away for 2 secondsStep 7. Re-present the Sd with an immediate prompt (0-second delay). End on prompted response.Step 8. Provide reinforcement (praise only)Step 9. Record second Error. Mark out the remaining trials in the block for this target. Regress a time-delay in the next block.
36 Time to PracticeError correction with an error on independent probe
37 Reinforcement During the Prompted Response Differential Reinforcement Slightly more exciting and motivating, but not as strong as when the child is independentMay be more reinforcing if it is something the child is just beginning to learn. Will be very neutral if this is something the child has shown many times in the past that they can do.
39 Behavior momentumSomething in motion stays in motion. Building momentum to maintain attention and motivation.Mixing and varying easier tasks to ensure success while adding more difficult and newer instructions.Lessens frustration
40 Common Beginning Programs Receptive Object LabelsExpressive Object LabelsGross Motor Imitation with ObjectsGross Motor Imitation with BodyBlocksMatching Objects and PicturesFollowing Instructions
41 Other Essential Programs Expressive and receptive language (manding)Identify by feature, function, and classCategoriesPronounsGeneral knowledgeNegationQuestionsMemoryPragmatic languageAcademics and conceptsFunctional and prevocationalApplied reading and math
42 Curriculum Guides A Work in Progress by Ron Leaf and John McEachin Behavior Interventions for young Children with Autism by Catherine MauriceAssessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills Revised James W. Partington, Ph.D., BCBA-DVerbal Behavior Milestone Assessment & Placement Program by Mark L. Sundberg Ph.D., BCBA