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ABA and Discrete Trial Teaching

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1 ABA and Discrete Trial Teaching
Amy Buie, M. Ed., BCBA Andrea Bowen, B.S., BCABA The Center for Autism Education PO Box 275 O’Fallon, MO 63366 Phone: (636) Fax: (636)

2 Agenda Applied Behavior Analysis The Discrete Trial Reinforcement
Errorless Learning/Time Delay Prompting Blocking Error Correction(practice) Data Collection Putting it All Together(practice) Assessment

3 What Is ABA? Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
The application of principles of behavior to produce measurable change in behavior through the manipulation of the environment Identify functional relationships between behavior and the environment

4 How Does ABA Relate To Autism?
Incorporates behavior analytic principles to the applied setting Focus on positive reinforcement to increase appropriate behavior Breaks down learning tasks into the simplest components in order to develop more complex skills

5 How Does Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) Relate To ABA?
Discrete trial is one way to implement ABA. Behavior principles are used in a 1:1 setting to increase appropriate behavior and decrease inappropriate behavior Skills often targeted in DTT include attending skills, imitation, receptive skills, expressive skills and pre-academic skills

6 ABA vs. Discrete Trial Teaching
As soon as you target a socially significant skill/behavior and measure it to see how the behavior changed (or if it changed at all), you are using APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS. During DISCRETE TRIAL, you are systematically teaching skills (for example, matching pictures), measuring those skills by taking data – and so it is a part of ABA. Think of ABA as an UMBRELLA term for many techniques to fall under. One strategy to help change behavior is through the use of DISCRETE TRIALS

7 What Is ABA? What Is DTT?

8 Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT)
Fosters learning through repetition Isolates skills and teaches them in their smallest necessary components to foster learning of more complex concepts Makes contingencies as clear as possible Helps ensure implementers maintain consistency across each other Aids in data collection Should be only one component of a broad program for children with autism spectrum disorders

9 Example of a Discrete Trial
Trainer Trainee -Put toy on table -Say “touch ____” -Give student 1-3 seconds to respond -If correct, say “good job!” -Take toy off table -CONGRATULATIONS! You’ve just run your first discrete trial!

10 Advantages of Discrete Trial
Teaches “Learning how to learn” Joint attention Imitation Behavior Communication Social interaction

11 Advantages of Discrete Trial
Gains child’s attention Teaches compliance AND that this is rewarding The overall program is flexible and is designed to meet the needs of each individuals unique set of circumstances and level of functioning Progresses at the child’s rate of mastery Develops a pattern for learning Forces interactions

12 Advantages of Discrete Trial, cont.
Teaches a wide variety of skills and concepts Skills are observable and measurable Incorporates all domains of functioning – everything builds upon each other

13 Potential Concerns of Discrete Trial Training
Training is expensive and time consuming Implementation of techniques must be consistent and poor implementation can result in many frustrations with both the instructor and the student and the student may not gain any skills Poor implementation can result in students who are prompt dependent or have memorized rote skills with no generalization There may not be enough instructors available to provide 1:1 instruction Space may be limited and distractions may be difficult to omit

14 When Implementing DTT Work area is typically free of distractions (other materials, reinforcers, etc.) Begin with find a motivating reinforcer* Use 3 Target items unless program is limited. For example, “What’s your name?”

15 Components of a Discrete Trial
Instruction Response Consequence Pause The trial itself is DISCRETE with a clear beginning and end, which is why it is called a DISCRETE TRIAL (we are also teaching discrete skills).

16 Discrete Trial: Instruction Sd
Definition -The instruction or anything that evokes a response Rules: Get attention FIRST Louder than typical speech Clear and concise language Clear: “come here” instead of “commere” Concise: “touch shoe” instead of “touch the shoe on the table” 4. Only say directive once before getting a response

17 Discrete Trial: Response
Definition: What the child does immediately after the Sd Correct Response 1. Responds correctly to the Sd (make sure everyone is accepting the same response) Prompted Response 1. Full 2. Partial Error 1. Wrong Answer 2. No Response 3.Problematic behavior 4. Dual or Paired Response -

18 Discrete Trial: Consequence
Consequence is what happens after the response Must immediately follow the response - The more immediate the consequence, the better connection the child will make between the Sd and the response Correct: Deliver Positive Reinforcement Error: Block

19 What is Reinforcement? Reinforcement is the procedure of using a reinforcer to increase the rate of a behavior A reinforcer is anything that follows a behavior and increases the probability of that behavior Reinforcement is the building block and foundation of an effective ABA program. Use continuous reinforcement for new skills Use intermittent reinforcement to maintain behaviors over time

20 Correct Response & Reinforcement
Be sure what you are using as a reinforcer is truly reinforcing to the child Value of reinforcement vs. effort/difficulty of task Contingent Always keep interactive and include social praise (this is where you should use the child’s name) Vary reinforcement Pairing Think out of the box Incorporate sensory activities

21 Correct Response & Reinforcement, Cont.
Watch for satiation Keep things new and exciting Strategies: preference assessment, observation, interview, switch out toys in boxes

22 Discrete Trial: Pause Basically a brief pause 1-3 seconds long
Helps the child see that it is the end of one opportunity for reinforcement and we are about to begin another opportunity to receive reinforcement Long enough to make this connection, but not long enough to allow time to engage in other behaviors Gives instructors time to mix up or reset the field for the next trial and time to take data

23 Errorless Learning Prompting procedure for teaching new skills
Decreases or eliminates opportunity for learner to make errors Reduced practicing incorrect responses Systematically fades prompts Reduces frustration and emotional responses Research shows errors lead to further errors and emotional responses, can be difficult to correct and inhibit generalization

24 How Do We Reduce Errors? When teaching a new skill, the learner is given the most experience necessary to ensure that he or she responds correctly and the response can be reinforced If an error occurs, an error correction procedure is implemented, reducing the likelihood of another error will occur

25 Time Delay Prompting* O- second prompt delay – prompt occurs as the SD is delivered 2-second prompt delay- prompt is delivered 2 seconds after the SD 4 second Delay-prompt is delivered 4 seconds after the SD No prompt-Student should not be prompted after a 5-second delay. If the student has no response it is counted as an error and the error correction procedure is initiated. Block errors.

26 Prompting* Prompt can be full or partial
Only provide as much assistance as is required to ensure a correct response Fade prompts with in a single time delay Most to least intrusive* Physical(full) Model(partial) Gesture(partial) Verbal(partial) Within Stimulus

27 Data Collection Target multiple items at a time within each program
Each block contains 3-5 trials. Implementers typically complete at least 1 block per target per hour. All 3 current items will be placed in “field” at once and can be placed in any position.

28 Data Collection Full Prompt: 100% of the correct response is presented to the learner Partial Prompt: Learner provides at least some of the response Independent: Learner responds correctly and independently within 5 seconds(if in the “no prompt” delay of the directive Error: Learner responds or attempts to respond incorrectly or does NOT respond within 5 seconds ( if in the “no prompt” delay ) of the directive

29 Criteria When your block is finished:
Advance Criteria: Move up a delay after 3 “I” or “p” responses in a box Regress criteria: Move back a delay after 2 errors in a row Criteria to stay: Stay at current delay id block does not meet either criteria mentioned above Mastery criteria: An item is mastered once the student receives a pre-determined % accuracy across multiple block in a row -

30 What if They Go to Make a Mistake?
Always block when possible. Sometimes we're not fast enough and that's okay. AVOID hand over hand guidance to the correct answer AVOID allowing the student to make the wrong answer by BLOCKING errors If the student moves towards the incorrect target, block by putting the students hand back in lap.

31 Blocking Cont. Use blocking on levels 2, 4 and no prompt.
Use blocking during the correction procedure on the independent probe. Blocking is recorded as an error anytime it occurs.

32 Error Correction If the student goes towards an incorrect answer, use blocking and begin error correction procedure. Never prompt during the independent opportunity during the error correction procedure.

Step 1. Error is blocked. Record error. Step 2. Remove materials and turn away for 2 seconds Step 3. Re-present the Sd with an immediate prompt (0-second delay) The prompt should be intrusive enough to produce a correct response. Step 4. Provide reinforcement (praise only) Step 5. Re-present the directive a second time, giving the learner and “independent opportunity” with a 5-second wait (e.g. no prompt). If correct, record only the first error.

34 Practice Error correction with one error

Step 1. Error is blocked. Record as Error. Step 2. Remove materials and turn away for 2 seconds Step 3. Re-present the Sd with an immediate prompt (0-second delay) The prompt should be intrusive enough to produce a correct response. Step 4. Provide reinforcement (praise only) Step 5. Re-present the directive a second time, giving the learner and “independent opportunity” at 5-second wait (e.g. no prompt) Step 6. If student goes to make an error, BLOCK. Remove materials and turn away for 2 seconds Step 7. Re-present the Sd with an immediate prompt (0-second delay). End on prompted response. Step 8. Provide reinforcement (praise only) Step 9. Record second Error. Mark out the remaining trials in the block for this target. Regress a time-delay in the next block.

36 Time to Practice Error correction with an error on independent probe

37 Reinforcement During the Prompted Response Differential Reinforcement
Slightly more exciting and motivating, but not as strong as when the child is independent May be more reinforcing if it is something the child is just beginning to learn. Will be very neutral if this is something the child has shown many times in the past that they can do.

38 Time to Practice

39 Behavior momentum Something in motion stays in motion. Building momentum to maintain attention and motivation. Mixing and varying easier tasks to ensure success while adding more difficult and newer instructions. Lessens frustration

40 Common Beginning Programs
Receptive Object Labels Expressive Object Labels Gross Motor Imitation with Objects Gross Motor Imitation with Body Blocks Matching Objects and Pictures Following Instructions

41 Other Essential Programs
Expressive and receptive language (manding) Identify by feature, function, and class Categories Pronouns General knowledge Negation Questions Memory Pragmatic language Academics and concepts Functional and prevocational Applied reading and math

42 Curriculum Guides A Work in Progress by Ron Leaf and John McEachin
Behavior Interventions for young Children with Autism by Catherine Maurice Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills Revised James W. Partington, Ph.D., BCBA-D Verbal Behavior Milestone Assessment & Placement Program by Mark L. Sundberg Ph.D., BCBA

43 Putting it All Together

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