2True or False?Long term retention of a skill is best achieved by practicing a motor skill repeatedly before moving to a different version of the task or a different task altogether.The effectiveness of a training program shouldn’t be measured by the speed of acquisition or the level of performance reached at the end of practice opportunities, but by the learner’s performance in real-world settings that are the reason for the training.
3How should practice be structured? Determining the type of practice structure that promotes development of the individual’s capacity to produce a variety of actions from the same movement class is a key issue for movement practitionersIe. ThrowingThrowing a ball at different speeds to different locationsThrowing different types of objects into a trash canThrowing darts to different areas of a target
4Constant vs. Variable Practice Constant practicePractice schedule where a single variation of a given task is practiced repeatedly (in the same context)Throw the same object the same distance to the same targetVariable practicePractice schedule where multiple variations of a given task are practiced (changes in the context)Throw different objects from different distances to different targets
5Benefits of Practice Variability Learners develop competence in altering the parameters for different dimensions of an actionTo throw 20 feet, 40 feet or 60 feet, the GMP would be the sameBUT, the parameters for overall force would be differentIf the performer uses the wrong parameters for force the throw would be too long or too shortSkilled performers select the correct parameter use to meet the demands of the task
6Benefits of Practice Variability Learners are better able to perform novel versions of a movementLearners not only learn to perform specific versions of a movement practiced, but also develop a general capability of producing many different variations of a class of movementsPractice throwing different balls to different types of targets from different distancesWhen a new distance and target not practiced is presented, the learner can successfully perform the novel task
7Guidelines to Vary Practice Closed SkillsConstant regulatory conditions, variable non-regulatory conditionsOpen skills and closed skills with inter-trial variabilityVariable regulatory and non-regulatory conditions
8When to Implement Variable Practice Use constant practice during initial stage of learningFacilitates the learner’s development of a basic movement patternOnce learner has acquired the basic movement pattern, variable practice should be introduced.Superior for learningEnhances the adaptability of movement productionNew versions of a task are performed more effectively
9What do you think?A young person is thinking about applying for a job as a postal employee. The job requires workers to lift packages from a moving conveyor belt and toss them into bins situated in various locations around the conveyor. How might the person practice this task to improve his chances of getting the job?
10Organizing Variable Practice One way to solve this practice schedule problem is to understand the concept of contextual interferenceContextual interference results from practicing various skills within the same session of practice
11Contextual Interference Interference results from switching from one skill to another or changing the context in which a task is practiced from trial to trialIntertask variations: dribbling, free throws, passingintratask variations: helping a person use a fork to eat peas, lettuce, spaghetti, chickenHigh contextual interference leads to poorer performance during acquisition BUT enhances learning
12Continuum of Contextual Interference Effect Low Contextual InterferenceHigh Contextual InterferenceRepeatedBlockSchedule that organizes the practice of tasks in set orderSchedule that organizes the practice of each task in blocks, or units, of timeSchedule that organizes the practice of the tasks in random order
13Blocked PracticeOne variation of a skill is practiced repeatedly before practice attempts are given on another variationCreates low contextual interferenceShould be used initially until learner gets the idea of the movement
14Random PracticeMultiple task variations are performed in a random orderCreates high contextual interferenceUse once learners have acquired some degree of proficiency
15Repeated Blocked Practice E.g. 5 successive shots at each of the 4 positions repeating the rotation twiceCreates moderate levels of contextual interferenceCombines the advantages of both blocked and random practice
17Why Does The Contextual Interference Effect Occur? Idea #1: Elaboration hypothesisRandom practice engages one in more cognitive strategiesPerformer retains all the skill variations in working memoryPerformer develops a memory representation of a skill that can be accessed during a test
18Why Does The Contextual Interference Effect Occur? Idea #2: Action plan reconstruction hypothesisRandom practice requires performer to reconstruct an action plan for each practice trialPerformer engages in more problem-solvingBetter retention performance
19What Are The Limits Of The Contextual Interference Effect? Learning characteristics may limit the effectAgeHigh amounts of contextual interference in children do not enhance learning (blocked may be better)Skill levelStudents with low skills may have better retention in low amount of contextual interference (blocked may be better)
20LimitsSkills with different motor programs require more cognitive involvement= greater interference & enhanced learningHowever, in applied situations, intratask variations have been shown to elicit contextual interference
21Practical Application For a skill of your choice, establish a variable practice schedule for closed skills and open skills.For a skill of your choice, establish contextual interference for a novice learner; for a skilled learner.
22Time across practice sessions Random, repeated block, and block practice deals with time within a practice sessionHow about the duration and frequency of practice sessions across days, weeks, months?
23Massed vs. Distributed Practice Massed practiceAmount of time allocated to rest between sessions or practice attempts is comparatively less than the time that the learner is engaged in practiceDistributed practiceRest component between sessions or practice attempts is equal to or greater than the practice component
24Question?A team practices for 3 hours, has an hour off, then practices for 2 hours. Is this an example of massed or distributed practice?A patient receives therapy for 1 hour every day during a hospital stay. Is this an example of massed or distributed practice?
25Practical Implications Use distributed practice for:Skills that are novel or complexContinuous tasksTasks with high-energy requirementsTasks that involve some degree of riskLearners who lack physical conditioning
26Practical Implications Cont. Use massed practice for:Discrete skillsLearners who have acquired basic skillsLearners who are highly motivatedLearners who are in good physical conditionLearners who have longer attention spans
27Benefits Distributed practice seems to benefit learning. Why? More frequent repetitionLess fatigueLess incorrect movementLower potential of injuryMassed practice may improve physical conditioning for more advanced learners
28Maximizing Time on Task Rest Intervals: change muscle groups, use C.I.Equipment substitutions: gather equipment for all, make equipment appropriate for developmental level of userDrill design: active participation by all; avoid elimination; random practice enhances learningSmall groups
29Practical Application Using a sport or rehab activity of your choice, generate a list of possible alternatives that could be used when an insufficient amount of equipment is available.