2 OverviewOrganisms learn through imitation based on the observation of others.Occurs within a variety of organismsBirds, Big Cats, Primates, Humans, etc.Major theorist BanduraWide variety of studies examining the model
3 Overview ContinuedA model stimulus is presented in an effort to evoke the imitative behaviorThe imitative behavior follows immediatelyThe model and behavior should formal similarityThe model must serve as a controlling variable for the imitative behavior (SD)
5 ReinforcementIf the model is rewarded, increased probability the observer will do the behavior.If the model is punished, increased probability the observer will not do the behavior.
6 Characteristics of the Model Age of the modelSex of the modelIf the model is seen as strong or weakPeople imitate models that appear powerful
7 More VariablesWay the model is presentedTV = Real life
8 Formal SimilarityThe model and the behavior physically resemble each otherCloser the appearance, the higher the likelihood the observer will follow the model’s behavior
9 ImmediacyThe temporal relation between the model and the occurrence of the imitative behavior is very importantImitation may also occur at later times and in the context of everyday life situationsHowever, when this occurs in the absence of a model, it is not imitationThe discriminative features of the environment are different in this context (i.e., the model is not controlling the behavior)
10 Controlled RelationThe controlling relation between the model and the imitative behavior is paramountBest evidenced when the model is novel and it still evokes an imitative responseAfter this first occurrence, the new behavior has a history of reinforcementBecomes a discriminated operant
11 Types of Behavior Modeling Planned modelsPre-arranged antecedent stimuli that help learners acquire new skillsShows the learner exactly what to doUnplanned modelsOccur in everyday social interactions
12 Imitation TrainingSome children with disabilities require instruction in order to learn to imitateObjective: Teach children to “Do what the model does”Generalize a rule to imitate modelsAlso known as generalized imitation
13 Steps to Imitation Training Assess the behavior in the observer you want to changeSelect potential modeling behaviors for trainingAssess prerequisite skills needed by the observerTrain the modelPretest the behavior to be modeledSequence modeling behaviors for trainingPerform imitation trainingMonitor the behavior
14 Assess the BehaviorNeed to determine the frequency of the behavior to be changedMay need to identify stimuli, etc.May do a functional analysis, etc.
15 Select Potential Modeling Behaviors for Training Begin with selecting about 25Depending on the observer, may need to include gross and/or fine motor behaviorsExamplesMovement of body partsManipulation of physical objectsUse only one at a time (don’t sequence them--save sequences for later)
16 Assess Prerequisite Skills Needed by the Observer What Prerequisite skills are needed by the observer?Attending (staying seated, keeping hands in lap, looking at teacher when name is called, looking at objects when prompted by teacher)Some problem behaviors that may interfere with training may need to be decreased before imitation training begins.
17 Train the ModelWhat skills are neededKnow what you want to train
18 Pretesting Is different from the initial assessment Purpose: To determine if individual already imitates some behaviors to be modeledProcedures:Get learner in “ready” positionIf object to be used, please it in front of individualSay learners name, and then “do this”Present the modelImmediately praise all responses with formal similarity to the modelRecord learner’s response as correct or incorrect
19 Sequence the Behaviors to be Modeled Arrange from easiest to most difficultFirst models for training are ones the individual imitated correctly on some, but not all, pretest itemsNext: Teach ones the learner approximated but did incorrectly on pretestLast: Teach items the learner did not perform or performed incorrectly on pretest
20 Performing Imitation Training Pre-assessmentTraining
21 Pre-assessmentPurpose:Evaluate learner’s current performance level and determine progress in learning to respond to modelProcedure:Brief pretest prior to each training sessionUse first 3 models currently selected for trainingPresent them 3 times in random orderIf learner performs them correctly 3 times, remove from training sequence
22 TrainingUse repeated presentations of 1 of the 3 models in pre-assessmentUse model most often responded to or responded to with closest similarity during pre-assessmentContinue until learner responds correctly 5 consecutive timesUse physical guidance if necessary to prompt the responseGradually fade prompts as quickly as possible
23 Behavior Monitoring - Post-Assessment Purpose: Evaluate how well learner can perform previously- and recently-learned behaviorsPresent 5 previously learned models and 5 models still in trainingOn 3 consecutive post-assessmentsIf child has imitated a model incorrectly on 14 of 15 trials, remove it from trainingPhysical guidance may be used
24 Behavior Monitoring - Probes for Imitative Behavior Purpose: Assesses for generalized imitationSelect 5 non-trained, novel models to check for occurrence of imitationDo at end of each training session or intermix in training sessionsUse pre-assessment procedures (no antecedent or response prompts)
25 Guidelines for Imitation Training Keep training sessions active and short (10-15 minutes, a couple times a day)Reinforce both prompted and imitative responsesPair verbal praise and attention with tangible reinforcersIf progress breaks down, back up and move ahead slowlyKeep a recordFade out verbal response prompts and physical guidance
26 Conclusions Excellent way to train behavior Can be used in a wide variety of settingsCan be used with a wide variety of populationsStudentsManagersCounselorsAssessment is criticalCan include a variety of additional techniquesShaping