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Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 15 The Resurgence of Empire in East Asia.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 15 The Resurgence of Empire in East Asia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 15 The Resurgence of Empire in East Asia

2 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 2 The Sui Dynasty ( CE) Regional kingdoms succeed collapse of Han dynasty Yang Jian consolidates control of all of China, initiates Sui Dynasty Massive building projects  Military labor  Conscripted labor

3 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 3 The Grand Canal Intended to promote trade between north and south China  Most Chinese rivers flow west-east Linked network of earlier canals  2000k (1240 miles)  Roads on either bank Succeeded only by railroad traffic in 20 th century

4 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 4 The Tang Dynasty ( CE) Wide discontent over conscripted labor in Sui dynasty Military failures in Korea prompt rebellion Emperor assassinated in 618  Tang Dynasty initiated

5 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 5 Tang Taizong Second emperor of Tang dynasty (r CE) Murdered two brothers, thrust father aside to take throne Strong ruler  Built capital at Chang’an  Law and order  Taxes, prices low  More effective implementation of earlier Sui policies

6 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 6 Major achievements of Tang Dynasty Transportation and communications  Extensive postal, courier services Equal-field System  20% of land hereditary ownership  80% redistributed according to formula Family size, land fertility  Worked well until 8 th century Corruption, loss of land to Buddhist monasteries

7 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 7 Bureaucracy of Merit Imperial civil service examinations  Confucian educational curriculum Some bribery, nepotism But most advance through merit  Built loyalty to the dynasty  System remains strong until early 20 th century

8 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 8 Tang Military Expansion and Foreign Relations Manchuria, Korea, Vietnam, Tibet One of the largest expansions of China in its history Established tributary relationships  Gifts China as “Middle Kingdom”  The kowtow ritual

9 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 9. The Sui and Tang dynasties, CE

10 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 10 Tang Decline Governmental neglect: Emperor obsessed with music, favorite concubine 775 rebellion under An Lushan, former military commander Captures Chang’an, but rebellion crushed by 763 Nomadic Uighur mercenaries invited to suppress rebellion, sacked Chang’an and Luoyang Tang decline continues, rebellions in 9 th century, last emperor abdicates 907

11 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 11 Song Dynasty ( CE) Emphasis on administration, industry, education, the arts Military not emphasized Direction of first emperor, Song Taizu (r CE)  Former military leader  Made emperor by troops  Instituted policy of imperial favor for civil servants, expanded meritocracy

12 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 12 The Song dynasty, C.E. The Song dynasty, CE

13 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 13 Song Weaknesses Size of bureaucracy heavy drain on economy  Two peasant rebellions in 12 th c.  Internal inertia prevents reform of bureaucracy Civil service leadership of military  Lacked military training  Unable to contain nomadic attacks  Jurchen conquer, force Song dynasty to Hangzhou, southern China (Southern Song)

14 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 14 Agricultural Economies of the Tang and Song Dynasties Developed Vietnamese fast-ripening rice, 2 crops per year Technology: iron plows, use of draft animals Soil fertilization, improved irrigation  Water wheels, canals Terrace farming

15 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 15 Population Growth Result of increased agricultural production Effective food distribution system  Transportation networks built under Tang and Song dynasties

16 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 16 Urbanization Chang’an world’s most populous city: 2 million residents  Southern Song capital Hangzhou: over 1 million

17 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 17 Patriarchal Social Structures Increased emphasis on ancestor worship  Elaborate grave rituals  Extended family gatherings in honor of deceased ancestors Footbinding gains popularity  Increased control by male family members

18 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 18 Footbinding

19 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 19 Technology and Industry Porcelain (“Chinaware”) Increase of iron production due to use of coke, not coal, in furnaces  Agricultural tools, weaponry Gunpowder invented Earlier printing techniques refined  Moveable type by mid-11 th century  Yet complex Chinese ideographs make wood block technique easier Naval technology

20 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 20 Emergence of a Market Economy Letters of credit developed to deal with copper coin shortages  Promissory notes, checks also used Development of independently produced paper money  Not as stable, riots when not honored Government claims monopoly on money production in 11 th century

21 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 21 China and the Hemispheric Economy Increasingly cosmopolitan nature of Chinese cities Chinese silk opens up trade routes, but increases local demands for imported luxury goods

22 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 22 Cultural Change in Tang and Song China Declining confidence in Confucianism after collapse of Han dynasty Increasing popularity of Buddhism Christianity, Manichaeism, Zoroastrianism, Islam also appear Clientele primarily foreign merchant class

23 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 23 Dunhuang Mahayana Buddhism especially popular in western China (Gansu province), CE Buddhist temples, libraries Economic success as converts donate land holdings Increase popularity through donations of agricultural produce to the poor

24 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 24 Conflicts with Chinese Culture Buddhism:  Text-based (Buddhist teachings) Emphasis on Metaphysics Ascetic ideal  Celibacy  isolation Confucianism:  Text-based (Confucian teachings)  Daoism not text-based Emphasis on ethics, politics Family-centered  Procreation  Filial piety

25 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 25 Chan (Zen) Buddhism Buddhists adapt ideology to Chinese climate  Dharma translated as dao  Nirvana translated as wuwei Accommodated family lifestyle  “one son in monastery for ten generations of salvation” Limited emphasis on textual study, meditation instead

26 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 26 Persecution of Buddhists Daoist/Confucian persecution supported in late Tang dynasty 840s begins systematic closure of Buddhist temples, expulsions  Zoroastrians, Christians, Manicheans as well Economic motive: seizure of large monastic landholdings

27 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 27 Neo-Confucianism Song dynasty refrains from persecuting Buddhists, but favors Confucians Neo-Confucians influenced by Buddhist thought

28 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 28 China and Korea Silla Dynasty: Tang armies withdraw, Korea recognizes Tang as emperor Technically a vassal statue, but highly independent Chinese influence on Korean culture pervasive

29 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 29 China and Vietnam Vietnamese adaptation to Chinese culture, technology But ongoing resentment at political domination Assert independence when Tang dynasty falls in 10 th century

30 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 30 China and Early Japan Chinese armies never invade Japan Yet Chinese culture pervasive Imitation of Tang administration  Establishment of new capital at Nara, hence “Nara Japan” ( CE) Adoption of Confucian, Buddhist teachings Yet retention of Shinto religion

31 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 31 Heian Japan ( CE) Japanese emperor moves court to Heian (Kyoto) Yet emperor figurehead, real power in hands of Fujiwara clan  Pattern in Japanese history: weak emperor, power behind the throne  Helps explain longevity of the institution

32 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 32 Japanese Literature Influence of Chinese kanji characters  Classic curriculum dominated by Chinese

33 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 33 Institution of the Shogun Civil war between Taira and Minamoto clans in 12 th century Minamoto leader named shogun, 1185 CE Ruled from Kamakura, allowed imperial throne to continue in Kyoto

34 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 34 Medieval Japan Kamakura ( CE) and Muromachi ( CE) periods Decentralized power in hands of warlords Military authority in hands of samurai Professional warriors


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