The Sui Dynasty (589-618) Regional kingdoms succeed collapse of Han dynasty (220-589 Decentralized/Dark Age) Buddhist Emperor – Wendi Sui Wendi Sui consolidates control of China, initiates Sui Dynasty Wendi won popular support by lowering taxes and establishing a cheap food supply. Brought back scholar-gentry and imperial exam
Sui’s Fall Yangdi, Wendi’s son, succeeded his father to the Throne. Attempted to conquer Korea (failed) Defeated by central Asian Nomads (Turkic) Massive building projects: –Military labor-Grand Canal!!! –Conscripted labor-Great Wall reconstruction (6 million workers!)
The Grand Canal Intended to promote trade between north and south China –Most Chinese rivers flow west-east Linked network of earlier canals –1240 miles –Roads on either bank Succeeded only by railroad traffic in 20 th century Longest canal or artificial river in the world today!
Tang Taizong Second emperor of Tang dynasty (r. 627-649 CE) Murdered two brothers, thrust father aside to take throne Strong ruler –Built capital at Chang ’ an –Law and order –Taxes, prices low –More effective implementation of earlier Sui policies
Major Achievements of Tang Dynasty Transportation and communications –Extensive postal, courier services Became the golden age of literature in China Emperor Xuanzong’s splendor in Chang’an Welcoming of foreign faiths (not conversion) Equal-field System –20% of land hereditary ownership –80% redistributed according to formula Family size, land fertility –Worked well until 8 th century Corruption, loss of land to Buddhist monasteries, aristocratic land accumulation
Bureaucracy of Merit Imperial civil service examinations –Confucian educational curriculum Some bribery, nepotism But most advance through merit –Built loyalty to the dynasty –System remains strong until early 20 th century
Tang Military Expansion and Foreign Relations Manchuria, Korea, Vietnam, Tibet One of the largest expansions of China in its history Paid Central Asian Nomads to defend boarder (repair G.Wall) Established tributary relationships –Gifts China as “ Middle Kingdom ” –The kowtow ritual
Tang Decline Governmental neglect: Emperor obsessed with music, favorite concubine Anti-Buddhist Backlash (by Conf. & Daoists) Loss of tax revenues and inability to feed people in times of famine (Gov’t weakness) Nomadic Turkish Uighur (WEE-goor) mercenaries invited to suppress rebellion, sacked Chang ’ an and Luoyang as payment Nomadic raids and invasions continued Tang decline continues, rebellions in 9 th century, last emperor abdicates 907
Song Dynasty (960-1279 CE) [Never matched Tang military or political strength] Emphasis on administration, industry, education, the arts Military not emphasized Direction of first emperor, Song Taizu (r. 960-976 CE) –Former military leader –Made emperor by troops –Instituted policy of imperial favor for civil servants, expanded meritocracy
Song Strengths Population increase approached 100 mil. Rice production doubled due to opening new lands to cultivation in the south (Grand Canal) Improved tool use and fertilizers; new rice strains from Vietnam Tax relief for farmers and credit to open new farms Early song Emperors appoint bureaucrats based on merit Excel at Manufacturing (gunpowder, bombs, moveable type print, water-power mills, iron, steel); more per capita manufacturing than anyone else!
Song Weaknesses Lack of military might (“Fight with other means”) Size of bureaucracy heavy drain on economy –Two peasant rebellions in 12 th c. –Internal inertia prevents reform of bureaucracy Civil service leadership of military –Lacked military training –Unable to contain nomadic attacks –Jurchen (a Tungusic people (Siberian) who inhabited the region of Manchuria) conquer, founding the Jin Empire, forcing Song dynasty to Hangzhou, southern China (Southern Song)
Agricultural Economies of the Tang and Song Dynasties Developed Vietnamese fast-ripening rice, 2 crops per year Technology: iron plows, use of draft animals (North - Oxen, South – Water Buffaloes) Soil fertilization, improved irrigation –Water wheels, canals Terrace farming
Population Growth Result of increased agricultural production Effective food distribution system –Transportation networks built under Tang and Song dynasties
Strict Social Hierarchy Peasants Peasants: Majority population who were predominantly farmers living in small villages Merchants Merchants: Could acquire wealth but always held low social status due to their wealth coming from the work of others. Could own land and educate sons to enter the Gentry Gentry Gentry: Wealthy landowners, focused on Confucian ideals, focus on civil service
Urbanization Chang ’ an (currently Xi'an) world ’ s most populous city: 2 million residents –Southern Song capital Hangzhou: over 1 million
Patriarchal Social Structures Increased emphasis on ancestor worship –Elaborate grave rituals –Extended family gatherings in honor of deceased ancestors Footbinding gains popularity –Increased control by male family members
Technology and Industry Porcelain ( “ Chinaware ” ) Increase of iron production due to use of coke, not coal, in furnaces –Agricultural tools, weaponry Gunpowder invented Earlier printing techniques refined –Moveable type by mid-11 th century –Yet complex Chinese ideographs make wood block technique easier Naval technology –compass A typical junk ship from the Song Dynasty
Emergence of a Market Economy Letters of credit developed to deal with copper coin shortages –Promissory notes, checks also used Development of independently produced paper money –Not as stable, riots when not honored Government claims monopoly on money production in 11 th century
China and the Hemispheric Economy Increasingly cosmopolitan nature of Chinese cities Chinese silk opens up trade routes, but increases local demands for imported luxury goods
Cultural Change in Tang and Song China Declining confidence in Confucianism after collapse of Han dynasty Increasing popularity of Buddhism Christianity, Manichaeism, Zoroastrianism, Islam also appear Clientele primarily foreign merchant class
Dunhuang Mahayana Buddhism especially popular at Dunhuang in western China (Gansu province), 600-1000 CE –Cave temples Buddhist temples, libraries Economic success as converts donate land holdings Increase popularity through donations of agricultural produce to the poor
Conflicts with Chinese Culture Buddhism: –Text-based (Buddhist teachings) Emphasis on Metaphysics Ascetic ideal –Celibacy –Isolation Confucianism: –Text-based (Confucian teachings) –Daoism not text- based Emphasis on ethics, politics Family-centered –Procreation –Filial piety
Chan (Zen) Buddhism Buddhists adapt ideology to Chinese climate –Dharma translated as dao –Nirvana translated as wuwei Accommodated family lifestyle –“ one son in monastery for ten generations of salvation ” Limited emphasis on textual study, meditation instead
Persecution of Buddhists Daoist/Confucian persecution supported in late Tang dynasty 840s begins systematic closure of Buddhist temples, expulsions –Zoroastrians, Christians, Manicheans as well Economic motive: seizure of large monastic landholdings Limits growth but does not eradicate faiths
Neo-Confucianism Song dynasty refrains from persecuting Buddhists, but favors Confucians Neo-Confucians influenced by Buddhist thought –Syncretic blend of both faiths
China and Korea Silla Dynasty: Tang armies withdraw, Korea recognizes Tang as emperor Technically a vassal statue, but highly independent Chinese influence on Korean culture pervasive
China and Vietnam Vietnamese adaptation to Chinese culture, technology But ongoing resentment at political domination Assert independence when Tang dynasty falls in 10 th century
China and Early Japan Chinese armies never invade Japan Yet Chinese culture pervasive Imitation of Tang administration –Establishment of new capital at Nara, hence “ Nara Japan ” (710-794 CE) Adoption of Confucian, Buddhist teachings Yet retention of Shinto religion
Global Tectonic Plates Japan -- On the “Fire Rim of the Pacific”
Yamato Period: 300-710 “Great Kings” era Began promoting the adoption of Chinese culture: a Confucianism. a Language (kanji characters). a Buddhist sects. a Chinese art & architecture. a Government structure. Began promoting the adoption of Chinese culture: a Confucianism. a Language (kanji characters). a Buddhist sects. a Chinese art & architecture. a Government structure.
Heian Japan (794-1185 CE) Japanese emperor moves court to Heian (Kyoto) Yet emperor figurehead, real power in hands of Fujiwara clan –Pattern in Japanese history: weak emperor, power behind the throne –Helps explain longevity of the institution
Heian Period: Cultural Borrowing 1.Chinese writing. 2.Chinese artistic styles. 3.Zen Buddhism 4.BUT, not the Chinese civil service system! 1.Chinese writing. 2.Chinese artistic styles. 3.Zen Buddhism 4.BUT, not the Chinese civil service system!
Japanese Literature Influence of Chinese kanji characters –Classic curriculum dominated by Chinese The Tale of Genji –One of rare Japanese language works of fiction written by a woman.
Institution of the Shogun Civil war between Taira and Minamoto clans in 12 th century Minamoto leader named shogun, 1185 CE Ruled from Kamakura, allowed imperial throne to continue in Kyoto
Medieval Japan Kamakura (1185-1333 CE) and Muromachi (1336-1573 CE) periods Decentralized power in hands of warlords Military authority in hands of samurai Professional warriors
Feudal Society The emperor reigned, but did not always rule!
FeudalismFeudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service. Japan: Japan: A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service. Japan: Japan: Shogun Daimyo Samurai Peasant Land Protection Loyalty Food
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