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The Resurgence of Empire in East Asia

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1 The Resurgence of Empire in East Asia
Chapter 15 The Resurgence of Empire in East Asia

2 The Sui Dynasty ( CE) Regional kingdoms succeed collapse of Han dynasty Yang Jian consolidates control of all of China, initiates Sui Dynasty Massive building projects Military labor Conscripted labor

3 The Grand Canal Intended to promote trade between north and south China Most Chinese rivers flow west-east Linked network of earlier canals 2000k (1240 miles) Roads on either bank Succeeded only by railroad traffic in 20th century

4 The Tang Dynasty ( CE) Wide discontent over conscripted labor in Sui dynasty Military failures in Korea prompt rebellion Emperor assassinated in 618 Tang Dynasty initiated

5 Tang Taizong Second emperor of Tang dynasty (r. 627-649 CE)
Murdered two brothers, thrust father aside to take throne Strong ruler Built capital at Chang’an Law and order Taxes, prices low More effective implementation of earlier Sui policies

6 Major achievements of Tang Dynasty
Transportation and communications Extensive postal, courier services Equal-field System 20% of land hereditary ownership 80% redistributed according to formula Family size, land fertility Worked well until 8th century Corruption, loss of land to Buddhist monasteries

7 Bureaucracy of Merit Imperial civil service examinations
Confucian educational curriculum Some bribery, nepotism But most advance through merit Built loyalty to the dynasty System remains strong until early 20th century

8 Tang Military Expansion and Foreign Relations
Manchuria, Korea, Vietnam, Tibet One of the largest expansions of China in its history Established tributary relationships Gifts China as “Middle Kingdom” The kowtow ritual

9 The Sui and Tang dynasties, 589-907 C.E.

10 East Asian Sphere of Influence under Tangs
Korea, Japan, Vietnam united by: Confucian Thought, political social values Buddhism-as refined in China Literary and writing system used by elites in all of these societies.

11 Tang Decline Governmental neglect: Emperor obsessed with music, favorite concubine 755 rebellion under An Lushan, former military commander Captures Chang’an, but rebellion crushed by 763 Nomadic Uighur mercenaries invited to suppress rebellion, sacked Chang’an and Luoyang Tang decline continues, rebellions in 9th century, last emperor abdicates 907

12 Song Dynasty ( CE) Emphasis on administration, industry, education, the arts Military not emphasized Direction of first emperor, Song Taizu (r CE) Former military leader Made emperor by troops Instituted policy of imperial favor for civil servants, expanded meritocracy

13 The Song dynasty, C.E.

14 Song Weaknesses Size of bureaucracy heavy drain on economy
Two peasant rebellions in 12th c. Internal inertia prevents reform of bureaucracy Civil service leadership of military Lacked military training Unable to contain nomadic attacks Jurchen conquer, force Song dynasty to Hangzhou, southern China (Southern Song)

15 Agricultural Economies of the Tang and Song Dynasties
Developed Vietnamese fast-ripening rice, 2 crops per year Technology: iron plows, use of draft animals Soil fertilization, improved irrigation Water wheels, canals Terrace farming

16 Population Growth Result of increased agricultural production
Effective food distribution system Transportation networks built under Tang and Song dynasties

17 Urbanization Chang’an world’s most populous city: 2 million residents
Southern Song capital Hangzhou: over 1 million Several cities over 100,000

18 Patriarchal Social Structures
Increased emphasis on ancestor worship Elaborate grave rituals Extended family gatherings in honor of deceased ancestors Footbinding gains popularity Increased control by male family members

19 Footbinding

20 Cast of Bound foot: The Golden Lotus of Feminine Beauty

21 Technology and Industry
Porcelain (“Chinaware”) Increase of iron production due to use of coke, not coal, in furnaces Agricultural tools, weaponry Gunpowder invented Earlier printing techniques refined Moveable type by mid-11th century Yet complex Chinese ideographs make wood block technique easier Naval technology

22 Emergence of a Market Economy
“Flying cash:” letters of credit developed to deal with copper coin shortages Promissory notes, checks also used Development of independently produced paper money Not as stable, riots when not honored Government claims monopoly on money production in 11th century

23 China and the Hemispheric Economy
Increasingly cosmopolitan nature of Chinese cities Chinese silk opens up trade routes, but increases local demands for imported luxury goods

24 Cultural Change in Tang and Song China
Declining confidence in Confucianism after collapse of Han dynasty Increasing popularity of Buddhism Christianity, Manichaeism, Zoroastrianism, Islam also appear Clientele primarily foreign merchant class

25 Dunhuang Mahayana Buddhism especially popular in western China (Gansu province), CE Buddhist temples, libraries Economic success as converts donate land holdings Increase popularity through donations of agricultural produce to the poor

26 Conflicts with Chinese Culture
Buddhism: Text-based (Buddhist teachings) Emphasis on Metaphysics Ascetic ideal Celibacy isolation Confucianism: Text-based (Confucian teachings) Daoism not text-based Emphasis on ethics, politics Family-centered Procreation Filial piety

27 Chan (Zen) Buddhism Buddhists adapt ideology to Chinese climate
Dharma translated as dao Nirvana translated as wuwei Accommodated family lifestyle “one son in monastery for ten generations of salvation” Limited empahsis on textual study, meditation instead

28 Persecution of Buddhists
Daoist/Confucian persecution supported in late Tang dynasty 840s begins systematic closure of Buddhist temples, expulsions Zoroastrians, Christians, Manicheans as well Economic motive: seizure of large monastic landholdings

29 Neo-Confucianism Song dynasty refrains from persecuting Buddhists, but favors Confucians Neo-Confucians influenced by Buddhist thought Zhu Xi ( CE) important synthesizer Popular to 20th century

30 China and Korea Silla Dynasty: Tang armies withdraw, Korea recognizes Tang as emperor Technically a vassal statue, but highly independent Chinese influence on Korean culture pervasive

31 China and Vietnam Vietnamese adaptation to Chinese culture, technology
But ongoing resentment at political domination Assert independence when Tang dynasty falls in 10th century

32 China and Early Japan Chinese armies never invade Japan
Yet Chinese culture pervasive Imitation of Tang administration Establishment of new capital at Nara, hence “Nara Japan” ( CE) Adoption of Confucian, Buddhist teachings Yet retention of Shinto religion

33 Heian Japan ( CE) Japanese emperor moves court to Heian (Kyoto) Yet emperor figurehead, real power in hands of Fujiwara clan Pattern in Japanese history: weak emperor, power behind the throne Helps explain longevity of the institution

34 Japanese Literature Influence of Chinese kanji characters
Classic curriculum dominated by Chinese Development of hiragana, katakana syllabic alphabet Court life: The Tale of Genji Written by woman with weak command of Chinese, becomes classic of early Japanese literature

35 Institution of the Shogun
Civil war between Taira and Minamoto clans in 12th century Minamoto leader named shogun, 1185 CE Ruled from Kamakura, allowed imperial throne to continue in Kyoto

36 Medieval Japan Kamakura ( CE) and Muromachi ( CE) periods Decentralized power in hands of warlords Military authority in hands of samurai Professional warriors

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