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Presentation on theme: "PRODUCTION AND PROGRAMMING"— Presentation transcript:

ACCT-BVP1-6. Students will demonstrate proper use and operation of studio equipment and production techniques while working as part of a production team. Career investigations will be included as part of instruction. Operate production switcher. Operate audio console. Operate recording/broadcasting equipment. Operate studio cameras. Operate character generator. Identify and perform duties of a floor director. Demonstrate ability to perform basic mathematical calculations in the preparation of log sheets, electronic decision lists (EDL), and news formats.


3 PRODUCTION SWITCHER A production switcher refers to either:
A device used to mix multiple video sources into one or more master outputs. A person who operates a production switcher device. Note that the term switcher is a more American term, whereas mixer tends to be more European term, but they both refer to the same thing. Because we are in America, we will call the mixing device a production switcher, and the operator a technical director. However, you may hear or see the terms used interchangeably.

The Panasonic AW-SW350 is a compact half-rack production switcher with five Y/C and composite video inputs. This would be suitable for a small production studio or field production unit. The Sony BVS-3200CP is a relatively small desk console suitable for a moderately-sized production unit or OB. The Snell & Wilcox Kahuna HD/SD console is a monster-sized switcher suitable for large production environments.

5 PRODUCTION SWITCHER What Does a Production Switcher Do?
The main purpose of a Production Switcher is to create a master output for a real-time video recording or broadcast. Typically production switchers are used for live events, or any event where multiple sources need to be mixed in real-time (as opposed to post-production editing). Production switchers can also be used to create various visual effects, from simple mixes and wipes between sources to advanced composite effects. How Does a Production Switcher Work? Production switchers are conceptually similar to audio mixers. They take multiple input sources, apply any desired effects or processing, and provide one or more outputs. Most production switchers are based around the preview bus and the program bus, each of which has it's own monitor. The program bus is the main output feed, i.e. the image which is being recorded or broadcast. Whichever source is on the program bus is said to be online. The preview bus is used to select and preview the source which is about to be put online. Note: The preview bus does not have to be used — sources can be cut online without being previewing if desired. However the preview is normally necessary for any visual effects such as transitions, as the effect is constructed from the preview and program sources.

6 PRODUCTION SWITCHER The Role of the Technical Director
The technical director takes their instruction from the director. Basically, the director decides what is going to happen and tells the technical director to do it. A typical set of instructions might go like this: Director's Instruction: Meaning: "1 next“ Preview camera 1 and prepare to put it online. "Take“ Cut camera 1 online. "2 next“ Preview camera 2 and prepare to put it online. "Mix“ Mix camera 2 online. etc etc… Note: In some studios the director will say "cut" instead of "take". This is a potential source of confusion though, as "cut" is also used to mean "everyone stop".


Sound Mixers: Overview A sound mixer is a device which takes two or more audio signals, mixes them together and provides one or more output signals. The diagram on the right shows a simple mixer with six inputs and two outputs. As well as combining signals, mixers allow you to adjust levels, enhance sound with equalization and effects, create monitor feeds, record various mixes, etc. Mixers come in a wide variety of sizes and designs, from small portable units to massive studio consoles. The term mixer can refer to any type of sound mixer; the terms sound desk and sound console refer to mixers which sit on a desk surface as in a studio setting. Sound mixers can look very intimidating to the newbie because they have so many buttons and other controls. However, once you understand how they work you realize that many of these controls are duplicated and it's not as difficult as it first seems.

Applications Some of the most common uses for sound mixers include: Music studios and live performances: Combining different instruments into a stereo master mix and additional monitoring mixes. Television studios: Combining sound from microphones, tape machines and other sources. Field shoots: Combining multiple microphones into 2 or 4 channels for easier recording. Channels Mixers are frequently described by the number of channels they have. For example, a "12-channel mixer" has 12 input channels, i.e. you can plug in 12 separate input sources. You might also see a specification such as "24x4x2" which means 24 input channels, 4 subgroup channels and two output channels. More channels means more flexibility, so more channels is generally better.

Advanced Mixing The diagram below shows how a mixer can provide additional outputs for monitoring, recording, etc. Even this is just scratching the surface of what advanced mixers are capable of.

Sound Mixer Channels Each input source comes into the mixer through a channel. The more channels a mixer has, the more sources it can accept. The following examples show some common ways to describe a mixer's compliment of channels: 12-channel 12 input channels. 16x2 16 input channels, 2 output channels. 24x4x2 24 input channels, 4 subgroup channels and two output channels. Input Channels On most sound desks, input channels take up most of the space. All those rows of knobs are channels. Exactly what controls each channel has depends on the mixer but most mixers share common features. The list below details the controls available on a typical mixer channel. Input Gain / Attenuation: The level of the signal as it enters the channel. In most cases this will be a pot (potentiometer) knob which adjusts the level. The idea is to adjust the levels of all input sources (which will be different depending on the type of source) to an ideal level for the mixer. There may also be a switch or pad which will increase or decrease the level by a set amount (e.g. mic/line switch).

Phantom Power: Turns phantom power on or off for the channel. Equalization: Most mixers have at least two EQ controls (high and low frequencies). Good mixers have more advanced controls, in particular, parametric equalization. Auxiliary Channels: Sometimes called aux channels for short, auxiliary channels are a way to send a "copy" of the channel signal somewhere else. There are many reasons to do this, most commonly to provide separate monitor feeds or to add effects (reverb etc). Pan & Assignment: Each channel can be panned left or right on the master mix. Advanced mixers also allow the channel to be "assigned" in various ways, e.g. sent directly to the main mix or sent only to a particular subgroup. Solo / Mute / PFL: These switches control how the channel is monitored. They do not affect the actual output of the channel. Channel On / Off: Turns the entire channel on or off. Slider: The level of the channel signal as it leaves the channel and heads to the next stage (subgroup or master mix).

Subgroup Channels Larger sound desks usually have a set of subgroups, which provide a way to sub-mix groups of channels before they are sent to the main output mix. For example, you might have 10 input channels for the drum mics which are assigned to 2 subgroup channels, which in turn are assigned to the master mix. This way you only need to adjust the two subgroup sliders to adjust the level of the entire drum kit.

Sound Mixers: Channel Inputs The first point of each channel's pathway is the input socket, where the sound source plugs into the mixer. It is important to note what type of input sockets are available — the most common types are XLR, 6.5mm Jack and RCA. Input sockets are usually located either on the rear panel of the mixer or on the top above each channel. There are no hard-and-fast rules about what type of equipment uses each type of connector, but here are some general guidelines: XLR Microphones and some audio devices. Usually balanced audio, but XLRs can also accommodate unbalanced signals. 6.5mm Jack Musical instruments such as electric guitars, as well as various audio devices. Mono jacks are unbalanced, stereo jacks can be either unbalanced stereo or balanced mono. RCA Musical devices such as disc players, effects units, etc.

Input Levels The level of an audio signal refers to the voltage level of the signal. Signals can be divided into three categories: Mic-level (low), line-level (a bit higher) and loudspeaker-level (very high). Microphones produce a mic-level signal, whereas most audio devices such as disc players produce a line-level signal. Loudspeaker-level signals are produced by amplifiers and are only appropriate for plugging into a speaker — never plug a loudspeaker-level signal into anything else. Sound mixers must be able to accommodate both mic-level and line-level signals. In some cases there are two separate inputs for each channel and you select the appropriate one. It is also common to include some sort of switch to select between inputs and/or signal levels. Input Sockets and Controls The example on the right shows the input connections on a typical mixer. This mixer has two input sockets — an XLR for mic-level inputs and a 6.5mm jack for line-level inputs. It also has a pad button which reduces the input level (gain) by 20dB. This is useful when you have a line-level source that you want to plug into the mic input. Some mixers also offer RCA inputs or digital audio inputs for each channel. Some mixers provide different sockets for different channels, for example, XLR for the first 6 channels and RCA for the remainder.

Input Gain When a signal enters the mixer, one of the first controls is the input gain. This is a knob which adjusts the signal level before it continues to the main parts of the channel. The input gain is usually set once when the source is plugged in and left at the same level — any volume adjustments are made by the channel fader rather than the gain control. Set the gain control so that when the fader is at 0dB the signal is peaking around 0dB on the VU meters. Other Controls and Considerations Phasing: Some equipment and cables are wired with different phasing, that is, the wires in the cable which carry the signal are arranged differently. This will kill any sound from that source. To fix this problem, some mixers have a phase selector which will change the phasing at the input stage. Phantom Power: Some mixers have the option to provide a small voltage back up the input cable to power a microphone or other device. See Phantom Power for more information.

Sound Mixers: Channel Equalization Most mixers have some of sort equalization controls for each channel. Channel equalizers use knobs (rather than sliders), and can be anything from simple tone controls to multiple parametric controls. The first example on the right is a simple 2-way equalizer, sometimes referred to as bass/treble or low/high. The upper knob adjusts high frequencies (treble) and the lower knob adjusts low frequencies (bass). This is a fairly coarse type of equalization, suitable for making rough adjustments to the overall tone but is not much use for fine control. This next example is a 4-way equalizer. The top and bottom knobs are simple high and low frequency adjustments (HF and LF). The middle controls consist of two pairs of knobs. These pairs are parametric equalizers — each pair works together to adjust a frequency range chosen by the operator. The brown knob selects the frequency range to adjust and the green knob makes the adjustment. The top pair works in the high-mid frequency range (0.6KHz to 10KHz), the lower pair works in the low-mid range (0.15 to 2.4KHz). The "EQ" button below the controls turns the equalization on and off for this channel. This lets you easily compare the treated and untreated sound. It is common for mixers with parametric equalizers to combine each pair of knobs into a single 2-stage knob with one on top of the other. This saves space which is always a bonus for mixing consoles.

Notes About Channel Equalization If the mixer provides good parametric equalization you will usually find that these controls are more than adequate for equalizing individual sources. If the mixer is limited to very simple equalization, you may want to use external equalizers. For example, you could add a graphic equalizer to a channel using the insert feature. In many situations you will use additional equalization outside the mixer. In live sound situations, for example, you will probably have at least one stereo graphic equalizer on the master output.

Sound Mixers: Auxiliary Channels Most sound desks include one or more auxiliary channels (often referred to as aux channels for short). This feature allows you to send a secondary feed of an input channel's audio signal to another destination, independent of the channel's main output. The example below shows a four-channel mixer, with the main signal paths shown in green. Each input channel includes an auxiliary channel control knob — this adjusts the level of the signal sent to the auxiliary output (shown in blue). The auxiliary output is the sum of the signals sent from each channel. If a particular channel's auxiliary knob is turned right down, that channel is not contributing to the auxiliary channel.

In the example above, the auxiliary output is sent to a monitoring system. This enables a monitor feed which is different to the main output, which can be very useful. There are many other applications for auxiliary channels, including: Multiple separate monitor feeds. Private communication, e.g. between the sound desk and the stage. Incorporating effects. Recording different mixes.

Mixers are not limited to a single auxiliary channel, in fact it is common to have up to four or more. The following example has two auxiliary channels — "Aux 1" is used for a monitor and "Aux 2" is used for an effects unit. Note that the monitor channel (Aux 1) is "one way", i.e. the channel is sent away from the mixer and doesn't come back. However the Aux 2 channel leaves the mixer via the aux send output, goes through the effects unit, then comes back into the mixer via the aux return input. It is then mixed into the master stereo bus.

Pre / Post Fader The auxiliary output from each channel can be either pre-fader or post-fader. A pre-fader output is independent of the channel fader, i.e. the auxiliary output stays the same level whatever the fader is set to. A post-fader output is dependent on the fader level. If you turn the fader down the auxiliary output goes down as well. Many mixers allow you to choose which method to use with a selector button. The example pictured right shows a mixer channel with four auxiliary channels and two pre/post selectors. Each selector applies to the two channels above it, so for example, the button in the middle makes both Aux 1 and Aux 2 either pre-fader or post-fader.

Sound Mixers: Channel Assigning & Panning One of the last sets of controls on each channel, usually just before the fader, is the channel assign and pan. Pan Almost all stereo mixers allow you to assign the amount of panning. This is a knob which goes from full left to full right. This is where the channel signal appears on the master mix (or across two subgroups if this is how the channel is assigned). If the knob is turned fully left, the channel audio will only come through the left speaker in the final mix. Turn the knob right to place the channel on the right side of the mix.

Assign This option may be absent on smaller mixers but is quite important on large consoles. The assign buttons determine where the channel signal is sent. In many situations the signal is simply sent to the main master output. In small mixers with no assign controls this happens automatically. However you may not want a channel to be fed directly into the main mix. The most common alternative is to send the channel to a subgroup first. For example, you could send all the drum microphones to their own dedicated subgroup which is then sent to the main mix. This way, you can adjust the overall level of all the drums by adjusting the subgroup level. In the example pictured right, the options are: Mix: The channel goes straight to the main stereo mix 1-2: The channel goes to subgroup 1 and/or 2. If the pan control is set fully left the channel goes only to subgroup 1, if the pan is set fully right the channel goes only to subgroup 2. If the pan is centered the channel goes to subgroups 1 and 2 equally. 3-4: The channel goes to subgroups 3 and/or 4, with the same conditions as above. For stereo applications it is common to use subgroups in pairs to maintain stereo separation. For example, it is preferable to use two subgroups for the drums so you can pan the toms and cymbals from left to right. You can assign the channel to any combination of the available options. In some cases you may not want the channel to go to the main mix at all. For example, you may have a channel set up for communicating with the stage via an aux channel. In this case you don't assign the channel anywhere.

Sound Mixers: PFL PFL means Pre-Fade Listen. It's function is to do exactly that — listen to the channel's audio at a point before the fader takes effect. The PFL button is usually located just above the channel fader. In the example on the right, it's the red button (the red LED lights when PFL is engaged). Note: PFL is often pronounced "piffel". When you press the PFL button, the main monitor output will stop monitoring anything else and the only audio will be the selected PFL channel(s). This does not affect the main output mix — just the sound you hear on the monitor bus. Note that all selected PFL channels will be monitored, so you can press as many PFL buttons as you like. PFL also takes over the mixer's VU meters. PFL is useful when setting the initial input gain of a channel, as it reflects the pre-fade level. PFL vs. Solo PFL is similar to the solo button. There are two differences: PFL is pre-fader, solo is post-fader (i.e. the fader affects the solo level). PFL does not affect the master output but soloing a channel may do so (depending on the mixer).

Sound Mixers: Channel Faders Each channel has it's own fader (slider) to adjust the volume of the channel's signal before it is sent to the next stage (subgroup or master mix). A slider is a potentiometer, or variable resistor. This is a simple control which varies the amount of resistance and therefore the signal level. If you are able to look into the inside of your console you will see exactly how simple a fader is. As a rule it is desirable to run the fader around the 0dB mark for optimum sound quality, although this will obviously vary a lot. Remember that there are two ways to adjust a channel's level: The input gain and the output fader. Make sure the input gain provides a strong signal level to the channel without clipping and leave it at that level — use the fader for ongoing adjustments.

Sound Mixers: Subgroups Subgroups are a way to "pre-mix" a number of channels on a sound console before sending them to the master output mix. In the following diagram, channels 1 and 2 are assigned directly to the master output bus. Channels 3,4,5 and 6 are assigned to subgroup 1, which in turn is assigned to the master output. Subgroups have many uses and advantages, the most obvious being that you can pre-mix (sub-mix) groups of inputs. For example, if you have six backing vocalists you can set up a good mix just for them, balancing each voice to get a nice overall effect. If you then send all six channels to one subgroup, you can adjust all backing vocals with a single subgroup slider while still maintaining the balance between the individual voices. Note that if your mixing console's subgroups are mono, you will need to use them in pairs to maintain a stereo effect. For each pair, one subgroup is the left channel and the other is right. Each channel can be panned across the two subgroups, while the subgroups are panned completely left and right into the master output bus.

Sound Mixers: Outputs The main output from most mixing devices is a stereo output, using two output sockets which should be fairly obvious and easy to locate. The connectors are usually 3-pin XLRs on larger consoles, but can also be 6.5mm TR (jack) sockets or RCA sockets. The level of the output signal is monitored on the mixer's VU meters. The ideal is for the level to peak at around 0dB or just below. However you should note that the dB scale is relative and 0dB on one mixer may not be the same as 0dB on another mixer or audio device. For this reason it is important to understand how each device in the audio chain is referenced, otherwise you may find that your output signal is unexpectedly high or low when it reaches the next point in the chain. In professional circles, the nominal level of 0dB is considered to be +4 dBu. Consumer-level equipment tends to use -10 dBV. The best way to check the levels of different equipment is to use audio test tone. Send 0dB tone from the desk and measure it at the next point in the chain. Many mixers include a number of additional outputs, for example: Monitor Feed: A dedicated monitor feed which can be adjusted independently of the master output. Headphones: The headphone output may be the same as the monitor feed, or you may be able to select separate sources to listen to. Auxiliary Sends: The output(s) of the mixer's auxiliary channels. Subgroup Outputs: Some consoles have the option to output each subgroup independently. Communication Channels: Some consoles have additional output channels available for communicating with the stage, recording booths, etc.

29 Portable Camera: Precautions and Operation

30 Precautions--temperature
Avoid sudden changes in temperature. Moisture may form on the tape and inside the unit. Do not expose video equipment to high temperatures. Do not leave any video equipment in the hot sun or in a car. Do not operate in temperatures over 104. Operate in the shade when possible.

31 Precautions--lens Never point the camera lens or viewfinder at the sun or a very bright light including reflections off chrome, water, and glass... When moving the camera, keep the lens cap over the lens. Do not touch the surface of the lens. After use, cover the lens with the lens cap.

32 Precautions--cleaning
Only use lens solution and lens paper when cleaning the lens. Improper cleaning can scratch the lens coating. Remove dirt from the camera body with a clean dry cloth. Do not use solvents, cleaners, or alcohol.

33 Precautions--handling
Do not force the viewfinder up or down. Do not force the LCD screen up or down. Handle the camcorder with care. Avoid bumping, hitting, shaking, or striking the camcorder. Always transport the camera in the case. Do not drop the batteries. Do not set the batteries on concrete or cement.

34 Precautions--moisture
Do not connect the power supply or operate the camcorder if it gets wet. The camcorder and power supply should not be exposed to rain or moisture. The camcorder probably will not survive any type of direct exposure to rain, water or a splashing from a pool.

35 Supplying Power Batteries Insertion Power remaining indication
Operation time Charging batteries Indicators A/C Adapter Connections

36 The Tape Use standard Mini DV tapes only
Do not use long play cassettes (80 min) or LP speed Erasure prevention slider Tape Insertion Eject lever Door down, label up, hub in Use “Push to close” button

37 Viewing the image Viewfinder Cautions Positioning the viewfinder
Eyepiece corrector knob LCD monitor Opening Adjusting Closing Battery consumption

38 Recording Start/stop button Auto off Recording Speed Use SP
Avoid LP speed

39 Focus Auto Focus Manual focus Benefits Mode selector Focus button
Focus ring

40 White Balance Purpose Benefits Mode selector White balance button
Manual – indication Conditions for use Automatic – indication

41 Microphone Using the Microphone Internal microphone
External microphone Front jack Rear audio input VU meter Mic level controls

42 Camera Support Mounting the camera on tripod Holding the camera

43 After use Close LCD screen Attach lens cap Remove cassette
Turn off power Take out battery Put battery away Charge if necessary Put the camera away

44 Television Studio Camera Operation

45 The Studio Camera High quality camera, heavy and cannot be properly maneuvered without a camera mount Used for studio productions Can be used on big remotes Operates as part of a camera chain Other types of camera are self contained, can deliver signal directly to a VTR

46 Parts of the Camera Review
Lens Selects a field of view produces a small optical image of this view Camera Camera body with internal optical system Imaging device (pickup device) Viewfinder Shows a small video image on a screen of what the lens is seeing

47 Operating the Studio Camera
Some consider studio camera easier to operate than a portable or camcorder All electronic adjustments are done for you by a video operator or engineer They operate and control the CCU (camera control unit)

48 Intercom Headset Used to communicate with the director and other crew members Avoid any unnecessary talking on the intercom headset

49 Camera Cable Caries video and audio signals to and from the CCU
Contains numerous small cables Do not bend or tightly coil the cable, may damage or break small wires in the cable

50 Control Handles Used to move (tilt, pan, truck or dolly) the camera
Should not let go of the control handles or leave the camera if the pan and tilt locks are unlocked

51 Pan and Tilt Locks The pan and tilt control should be unlocked anytime you move the camera Unlock the pan then the tilt controls Reduces the chances of the camera accidentally tilting up or down and damaging the camera

52 Studio Viewfinder Usually 5 or 7 inches Monochrome (Black and white)
Can tilt or turn to the sides Avoid touching the viewfinder screen

53 Zoom and Focus Controls
Zoom Control Usually located on the right control handle Usually a rocker lever Focus Control Usually located on the left control handle Usually a knob that turns Avoid touching the lens surface

54 Tally light Mounted on top of the camera or viewfinder
Indicates the camera that is “on the air” Be sure it is off before focusing or moving

55 Many steps to follow Steps should be completed in order
Help to insure safe operation of the camera Reduce injury to camera operator or crew Help prolong the camera’s life Reduce damage to the camera Refer to the operation manual for your studio cameras, remote zoom and focus controls for other precautions and information

56 Camera Mounting Equipment

57 Purpose Shaky shots are a sign of amateur video
Difficult to get steady shots without a support Makes it easier to operate camera Prevents unnecessary camera movement Helps to keep the camera operator from becoming tired

58 Handheld or Shoulder Mount
Camera held in operator’s hand or in hand while resting on shoulder For lightweight cameras Support on shoulder or hold in hand Allows for quick movement from one location or shot to another Cameras get heavy when taping for a long time Operator gets tired Difficult to hold shots steady Difficult to achieve smooth camera movement

59 Handheld or Shoulder Mount
To get the steadiest possible shots Avoid the telephoto setting on the lens Use the wide angle setting when possible Lean against something – a wall, tree, pole

60 Monopod A single pole used to help support the camera
Lightweight and easy to carry Sets up quickly The camera operator can not let go of the camera Monfrontto VIDEO MONOPOD  Cat. No: 557B

61 Tripods Usually for lightweight ENG cameras/camcorders
Three adjustable legs Adjustable height Must make sure tripod and camera are level Can be used on uneven ground or stairs Can be used with a dolly (wheels) Oconnor Video System

62 Pedestals Usually larger and heavier than a tripod
Primarily used in a studio Allows smooth movement in any direction Easy to raise or lower the camera Use a counter balance system or pneumatic (air) pressure or both to raise and lower the camera Can steer in any direction Sachler Studio Ped 2-75

63 Camera Stabilizing Systems
Allows camera operator to run or walk with the camera Springs and counterweighted system absorbs movement Camera mount worn by the camera operator Can be heavy and difficult to use for a long period of time Smaller lighter units are available for small camcorders Steadicam ProVid 2

64 Jib A crane like device that allows for a great amount of camera movement Allows for a great amount of movement·     One person does all camera and jibs operations Short jib can be clamped to surfaces Long jib is self supporting and provides more movement than short jib Miller Projib 958

65 Crane Allows for a great amount of camera movement Heavy and large
Occupies a lot of space studio floor Needs at least two operators May need a driver in addition to camera operator and dolly/boom operator The smaller jib is more common in studios Panther Galaxy Crane - Platform

66 Camera Mounting Heads Connects camera to the mount
Allows the camera to tilt and pan FLUID HEAD Usually for ENG cameras or camcorders Lightweight mounting head Spring loaded mechanism in a thick oil Sachtler DV6

67 Camera Mounting Heads FLUID HEAD Allows for smooth panning and tilting
Drag or friction control adds resistance to allow for smooth movement Usually uses a leveling ball to attach the head to a tripod. The ball mount makes it easier to level the camera on the tripod Sachtler DV6

68 Camera Mounting Heads CAM HEAD For heavy cameras
Usually used with pedestals Allows for smooth panning and tilting Separate drag and lock controls The drag control should never be used to lock the camera Vinten Vector 700

69 Automatic Camera Mounts
Uses robotics to control camera movements, zoom and focus Camera operator is not on the studio floor Can be used in programs that follow a format-- teleconferences, meetings, news Vinten SP-2000X-Y Servo Pedestal Vinten HS-100P and BCS controller

70 Camera Movements

71 Camera Movements Often great camera work and movement is not noticeable, doesn’t draw attention to itself Movements should be smooth and motivated Movement can help create a mood Need to know and use the proper terms for accurate communication and desired results Left and right refer to the camera’s point of view Use camera movements to simulate eye or head movement of audience

72 Pan Horizontal (side to side) movement of the camera on the mount
The camera turns, the mount does not move Pan left - turn the camera so the lens turns or points further to the left Pan right - turn the camera so the lens turns or points further to the right Set mood, convey excitement, reveal something, emphasize size Pan left Pan right

73 Truck Move the camera and the mount to the side
Truck left - to move the camera and the mount to the left with the camera pointing forward Truck right - to move the camera and the mount to the right with the camera pointing forward Keep up with or travel with subject Also called Track Truck left Truck right

74 Arc Moving the camera and the mount in a curve usually around an object or subject Arc left Arc right Arc right Arc left

75 Tilt To point the camera up or down
Tilt up - tilt the camera so the lens slowly points further up Tilt down - to tilt the camera so the lens slowly points further down Emphasize height/size with slow tilt Tilt up Tilt down

76 Pedestal (Ped) To move a camera up or down
To raise or lower the camera on a pedestal mount Pedestal up or ped up - raise the camera Pedestal down or ped down - lower the camera Ped Up Ped Down

77 Dolly To move the camera and the mount toward or away from an object or subject Dolly in - to move the camera on the mount toward an object or subject Dolly out - to move the camera on the mount away from an object or subject Also called push in or pull back Audience feels near subject Follow the subject Dolly in Dolly out

78 ZOOM OUT ZOOM IN Zoom A lens movement, not a a camera movement
Changing the focal length of the lens Zoom in - the subject appears to get bigger and closer Zoom out - the subject appears to get smaller and further away ZOOM OUT ZOOM IN

79 Tongue Moving the camera to the left or right while using a crane
Tongue left Tongue right Tongue left Tongue right Panther Galaxy Crane - Platform

80 Crane or Boom Elevating or lowering the camera while using a crane or jib Crane up or boom up Crane down or boom down Panther Galaxy Crane - Platform Crane up Crane down

81 Crab Sideways movement of the crane Panther Galaxy Crane - Platform
Crab left Crab right

82 Character Generator

83 Character Generator A B 555-1234 555-1234 ROBERT’S TOWING SERVICE
The character generator, or CG, essentially creates letters (generates characters). Think of a CG as a video word processor. The primary function f the CG is to create titles. Titles may be very simple pages that appear on the screen, or they can move across the screen. The titles can move around on the screen is seemingly three-dimensional motions. The letters can be animated or stationary. The degree and style of movement should contribute to the overall effect of the video program rather than being a display of “look at the cool things I can do with this computer program.” A B ROBERT’S TOWING SERVICE ROBERT’S TOWING SERVICE The essential area is the region that must be seen by the viewer. A –The essential area does not include a margin or space between the end of words and the edge of the screen. B– Do not allow any of the graphic text to fall outside of the 4:3 aspect ratio essential area.

84 Character Generator The simplest and most common types of titles are the credit roll and the crawl. Credits are the written material presented before and/or after the program listing the names and job titles of the people involved in the program’s production. In a roll, titles move up the screen, as if they were printed on a long roll of paper. A credit roll, for example usually occurs at the end of the program. In order to be read by the audience, the titles must move up the screen. If titles move down the screen, the viewer’s eyes are constantly jerked up and down which creates a feeling of discontent with the audience. A crawl appears either at the top or bottom of the screen, without interrupting the network programming or footage. Words move from the right edge of the screen to the left edge of the screen. This right to left motion is most pleasing because we read from left to right. Running a crawl from the left to the right also creates a feeling of discontent with the audience. Local news programs use a crawl to display current traffic conditions and weather updates on the bottom or top of the screen. There are many different CG computer programs available. Some are independent hardware and software units. Others are programs that can be loaded onto a desktop computer. The titles are created on the computer and edit into the program.

85 Character Generator The term “CG” has another definition unrelated to title creation. CG also means “computer generated.” When used in this context, CG is usually mentioned with special effects. Many special effects are created on a computer, and when referring to them one might say “the special effects are CG.” The context of the sentence provides the key to how “CG” is used in conversation or direction. Special Effects Special effects, can be as simple as adding a title over a background scene, done with a character generator (C.G.), or inserting the well-known box over the newscaster’s shoulder. Or they can be as elaborate as the gradual transformation of a face into a series of intensely colored mosaic-like screen patterns. A character generator is a dedicated computer system used exclusively for still or animated titles and relatively simple special effects. With the right software, you can use your desktop computer as a C.G. for simple titles. A graphics generator produces a number of static or animated two- and three-dimensional images. The complex weather maps in television newscasts are usually done with a graphics generator. Using software and a standard desktop computer, you can create stunning, special effects. Even simple switchers have an abundance of built-in special effects that allow you to generate a great variety of )often unnecessary) transitions. These effects are used frequently in television news, music videos, and commercials.

86 Character Generator The C.G. is located in the control room so that the C.G. operator can call up the various preprogrammed titles or create new ones even during the show. In the studio the slate (which is a title screen that gives pertinent information about the production, such as the title of the production, the director’s name, the date, scene # and take #) is usually generated by the C.G. (character generator) and recorded right after the color bars. In the absence of a C.G., you can use a small witeboard with a 4X3 aspect ratio (4 units wide by 3 units high).

87 Studio Personnel: Key Positions in Production & Their Responsibilities

88 PRODUCER In charge of the entire production or program series
Organizes and schedules the production or a production series In charge of budgets May also be the director and/or writer

89 The Director Creatively translates the written word or script into sounds and images Establishes a point of view to help determine the selection of shots, camera placements, movements , and staging of the action Gives commands and suggestions during recording and editing

90 DIRECTOR Is responsible for everything that happens during the production of the program Directs all aspects of the program, actors and crew during rehearsals and taping Make sure every crewmember is doing their job correctly

91 The Assistant Director
Helps the TV or film director concentrate on his or her primary function which is controlling the creative aspects of production Handles variety of responsibilities that vary also depending on whether it is a TV or Film production

92 ASSISTANT DIRECTOR Assists the director during the actual production
May ready shots and equipment Times rehearsals and the taping of the production Makes sure all crewmembers are in their places While the director is on the studio floor, uses the headset to talk to the camera operators for the audio director and technical director..

93 CONTINUITY DIRECTOR Keeps track of all details to maintain continuity
Used in productions with multiple takes Generally found only on crews for large productions

94 The Scriptwriter Outlines and in large part, determines the overall structural form of a production project.

95 WRITER Writes the script
May be freelance or work full time for a station or production May also be the producer or director

96 Director of Photography
Controls film lighting and cinematography, or the creative use of a movie camera Supervises the camera crew which includes camera ops, assistant camera ops, grips and the electrical crew sometimes called engineers or gaffers

97 Art Director or Scene Designer
Determines the color, shape of sets, props, and backgrounds. Works very closely with costume designers and carpenters to ensure that costumes and sets properly harmonize or contrast with each other.

98 The Technical Director
Operates the switcher, a multiple video camera editing device, in the control room. Presses the buttons that change the television picture from one camera or playback device to another.

99 TECHNICAL DIRECTOR Does the switching, operates the video switcher
Operates the switcher as cued by the director or assistant director during the rehearsals and taping Coordinates the technical aspects of a production

100 The Audio Engineer In video production, the person responsible for all aspects of initial audio recording In film this person is referred to as the mixer or audio recordist

101 AUDIO DIRECTOR Responsible for the sound of the production
Sets up the microphones and audio board Operates the audio board during the production Picks-up and puts away all audio equipment and cables

102 The Editor In video post production, the editor operates and editing system that electronically connects the individually recorded segments in to a sequential order. A film editor physically cuts together various pieces of film into a single visual track and accompanying sound track.

103 EDITOR Operates the editing equipment Makes editing decisions

104 The Camera Operator Controls the operation of the video camera.
The camera op must smoothly, quietly and efficiently control the movement of the camera and related equipment.

105 CAMERA OPERATOR Operates the studio camera Frames and compose shots
Often is responsible for studio, set, and camera set-up Camera operators should not talk during a production Also responsible for studio clean up, strike and putting the cameras away Called videographers in news production, operate camcorders

106 The Lighting Director Responsible for arranging and adjusting the lights. Supervises the lighting crew which hangs and adjusts the various lighting instruments.

107 LIGHTING DIRECTOR Designs the lighting Sets up the lights
Operates lighting board

108 The Floor Manager Responsible for assisting the director on the floor of the studio.

109 FLOOR MANAGER In charge of all activity in the studio
Director’s representative in the studio Gives cues to talent during the production Must be sure the talent is familiar with the signals May be responsible for setting up the set and props

110 Talent The person who performs in front of the camera.

111 TALENT Anyone who appears in or is heard in a production
Actors, announcers, interviewees, reporter, anchors, guests, hosts…

112 Video Tape Operator The person responsible for monitoring the tape and making sure there are proper video and audio levels.

113 VIDEOTAPE OPERATOR Runs the videotape machines during rehearsals and taping Gets all necessary videotapes for playback and recording Checks that all videotapes are cued up and ready prior to the start of the rehearsal Ensures that the recording VTR is recording both audio and video Makes sure the program is recorded

114 Graphics Designer Person who designs titles and credits on the computer. They take direction from the director

Enters all necessary information titles, credits, graphics, into the character generator Types, and/or recalls from the computer the names and other graphic material to be integrated with the video image. Operates the CG during the production and rehearsals Checks all keys and rolls over a video source

116 ANNOUNCER Does not appear on camera Reads script/copy

Runs the main switcher that puts the programs on air

118 Recordkeeping

119 Log Sheets Field Logs Keeping accurate records of what you videotape and the proper labeling of videotapes may seem insignificant while in the middle of a production, but they are critical when you want to locate a particular scene or a specific tape among the various tape boxes. You will be surprised at how quickly you can forget the “unforgettable” scene and especially the number and the sequence of takes. Keeping accurate records during the taping saves much time in postproduction editing. Although you will most likely log the various takes and scenes when reviewing the videotape after the production, you are still greatly aided by a rough record kept during the production called a field log. A VTR operator, you should keep a field log even when recording in the studio. A field log is especially useful in more-complex field productions (hence its name) that involve a number of locations. Mark the good takes (usually with a circle) and identify especially those takes that seem unusable at that time. Label each videotape and box, and mark the field log with the corresponding information.

120 Log Sheets Field Log

121 Log Sheets VTR Logs A VTR log, is a list of all takes on the source videotapes compiled during the screening (logging) of the source material. It lists all takes - both good (acceptable) and no good (unacceptable) – in consecutive order by time code address. Often done with computerized logging programs. A vector log column facilitates shot selection. With the exception of editing for news or other such events that go on the air right after they occur, you should make a list of every take on the source tapes (the videotape with the original footage.), regardless of whether it is usable or properly slated. This list, called the VTR log, represents a much more precise record of what is on the source tapes than the field log kept by the VTR operator during the production. (Note that we call it “VTR log” even if the camcorder captures the original footage on disc rather than tape.) The purpose of the VTR log is to help you locate specific shots on the source tapes without having to preview them over and over again, or to make the capturing process for nonlinear editing more efficient. Nonlinear editing (NLE) allows instant random access to shots and sequences and easy rearrangement. The video and audio information is stored in digital form on computer hard disks or read/write optical discs. Uses disk based computer systems. Linear editing is analog or digital editing that uses tape-based systems. Selection of shots is nonrandom. If you have an accurate VTR log, you can eliminate right away most of the shots labeled “NG.” When preparing a VTR log, the field logs will be invaluable in helping you quickly locate a particular tape or shot sequence. This may not seem a big deal when you have only two tapes to review, but it is a lifesaver when you must log a stack of twenty or more source tapes. The following is the basic information a VTR log should contain.

122 Log Sheets Tape (or reel) numbers. These refer to the number the VTR operator has given the tape during production. He or she should have labeled not only the box but also the cassette with a number and the title of what the tape contains. If the VTR log format has no place for the show title, put it in the Remarks column. If you recorded time code in the field, the Hour column on the field log usually indicates the tape number. A time code gives each television frame a specific address (number that shows hours, minutes, seconds, and frames of elapsed tape). It is frame-accurate. Scene and take numbers. Use these only if they are useful in locating the material on the source tape. If you have properly slated the scenes and takes, copy the numbers from the slates. Otherwise, simply list all shots as they appear on the source tape in ascending order. Time code. Enter the time code number of the first frame of the shot in the In column and the last frame of the shot in the Out column, regardless of whether the shot is OK or no good.

123 Log Sheets OK or no good. Mark the acceptable shots by circling the shot number or by writing “OK” or “NG” (no good) in the appropriate column. Unless you have already eliminated all shots that were labeled “NG” on the field log, you can now see if you agree with previous determinations of whether or not the take was OK. When evaluating shots look for obvious mistakes, but also look for whether the shot is suitable in the contexts of the defined communication purpose an/or overall story. An out-of-focus shot may be unusable in one context but quite appropriate if you try to demonstrate impaired vision. Look behind the principal action: Is the back ground appropriate? Too busy or cluttered? It is often the background rather than the foreground that provides the necessary visual continuity. Will the backgrounds facilitate continuity when the shots are edited together? Sound. Here you note in- and out-cues for dialogue and sound effects that need attention during editing. Listen carefully not only to the foreground sounds but also to the background sounds. Is there too much ambience? Not enough? Note any obvious audio problems, such as trucks going by, somebody hitting the microphone or kicking the table, intercom chatter of the crew, or talent flubs in an otherwise good take. Write down the nature of the sound problem and its time code address.

124 Log Sheets Remarks. Use this column to indicate what the shot is all about, such as “CU of watch,” and to record the audio cues (unless you have a designated audio column). Vectors. Refers to a force with a direction. Graphic vectors suggest a direction through lines or a series of objects that form a line. Index vectors point unquestionably in a specific direction, such as an arrow. Motion vectors are created by an object or a screen image in motion. Vectors indicate the major directions of lines or motions within a shot. Noting such directional vectors will help you locate specific shots that continue or purposely oppose a principal direction. There are three types of vectors: graphic, index, and that guide our eyes in a specific direction, such as a line formed by the window frame or the edge of a book. An index vector is created by something that points unquestionably in a specific direction, such as an arrow or a person’s gaze. A motion vector is brought about by something moving. In the Vectors column, the g, I, and m refer to the vector type (graphic, index, or motion); the arrows indicates movement or pointing toward the camera; the dot alone indicates movement or pointing away from the camera.

125 Log Sheets For the actual logging, you can take the window dubs home and view them on your home VCR. A window dub is a “bumped-down” copy of all source tapes that has the time code keyed over each frame. Although the VCR will not show the high-quality pictures of the source tapes, it is certainly sufficient for giving you an idea of what video and audio material you have. It also lets you freeze the starting and ending frames of each shot so you can read and log their respective time code numbers. If you shot the material yourself, you are probably familiar with most takes. You can therefore get by with a rather sketchy VTR log that indicates reel and take numbers and some shot identification. But if you are given material that was shot by someone else, you should log as much about it as possible so that you will not have to go back to the source tapes to look for appropriative shots. The more careful and accurate your logging, the more time, money and nerves you will save during the actual editing. There are several good computerized logging programs available. Because the computer can display each frame with its time code address, you can use the clips you imported from the source tapes. Such logging software provides space for the name of the scene or shot and for identifying certain audio segments. Note, however , that the computer will not do the logging all by itself. It cannot tell how you want to name a particular shot, for example, or how you want to name a particular shot, for example, or whether you consider a take acceptable or unacceptable.

126 Log Sheets VTR Log

127 Electronic Decision Lists (EDL)
Preparing a paper-and pencil EDL When you edit a longer and more complex production, such as a documentary or drama, your main concern ins picking the shots that most effectively fulfill the story and contribute to a smooth shot sequence. You can save a great amount of actual editing time by simply watching the window dubs (in linear editing) or the clips (in nonlinear editing) and making a list of the edit-in and –out points for each selected shot. This list will be your preliminary Edit Decision List (EDL). An EDL consists of edit-in and edit-out points, expressed in time code numbers, and the nature of transitions between shots. Because this list is usually written by hand, this decision-making activity is called a paper-and-pencil editing or paper editing for short. When using a computer-assisted logging system, the computer will store your decisions and print out the preliminary EDL. Most high-end editing software will give you an option to display simultaneously a certain number of video and audio tracks. The tracks, stacked underneath the source and record monitors, display the video and can greatly facilitate building your preliminary EDL.

128 Electronic Decision Lists (EDL)
Handwritten Edit Decision List (EDL)

129 Electronic Decision Lists (EDL)
SHOT SEQUENCING Once you have a preliminary EDL, you can proceed to the first tentative sequencing of shots – the rough cut. With the preliminary EDL, tell the edit controller to search fro the selected shots, and copy them over to the record VTR. An edit controller is a machine that assists in various editing functions, such as marking edit-in and edit-out points, rolling source and record VTRs, and activating effects equipment. Often a desktop computer with specialized software. Also called a editing control unit. A Record VTR is the videotape recorder that edits the program segments as supplied by the source VTR(s) into the final edit master tape. It is also called an edit VTR. The source VTR is the videotape recorder that supplies the program segments to be assembled by the record VTR. It is also called the play VTR. With a nonlinear system, you simply tell the computer to run the selected sequence. When looking at the rough cut, you will undoubtedly see some shots that don’t make sense (despite their artistic value) or that interrupt the continuity. This is the time to eliminate redundant shots or look for similar shots in the VTR log that facilitate continuity. Adding Transitions Once satisfied with the rough cut, you can move to the next stage of deciding transitions and special effects. Again, don’t go overboard with dissolves, wipes, and flips. Because they are so readily available in NLE, they are especially tempting. Even if you see an excess of effects on the air every day, don’t try to compete. A clean cut is still on for the most effective and unobtrusive ways of combining shots.

130 Electronic Decision Lists (EDL)
AUDIO SWEETENING In relatively simple editing projects, the sound editing will consist mainly of combining the sound tracks of the shots so that no words are lost or mangled, and adding some music or sound effects. In linear editing you can match the sound track with the corresponding video via time code. This is by no means an easy job, and it takes practice, but this is where the advantage of nonlinear editing comes in. Even the simplest editing software allows you to mix at least two sound tracks, and more-sophisticated programs let you manipulate close to a hundred tracks. Because sounds in NLE are treated as clips, much like video, you can call up the sound files in random order, look at them in addition to hearing them, scrub through them (move through the sound sequence using the mouse) to find a particular point or frame, and manipulate and combine them in any number of ways. Note, however, that more complicated sound work takes an additional set of skills and is best left to the sound designer or sound editor. Once you have completed the final shot sequencing, you can print out the final EDL that eventually triggers all the commands for the final edit, or tell the computer to run the final edit sequence.

131 Electronic Decision Lists (EDL)
Computer Generated Edit Decision List (EDL)

132 Electronic Decision Lists (EDL)
Once you have completed the final EDL, even minor editing changes are quite time-consuming in linear editing and may even require that you redo all the edits that follow the point of change. The same change can be done much more quickly with the NLE system. What you see and hear during the playback is simply video and audio data files arranged in a particular order. All you do to make an editing change is rearrange some computer files and generate a new play order – a new EDL. Obviously, this takes considerably less time than re-editing gape.

133 Show Format Show Format: The show format contains only essential video information in the left (video) column and the standard opening and closing announcements in the right (audio column)

134 STUDY QUESTIONS Describe what is meant by production & programming.
Directions: On your own paper WRITE the following questions and their answers. Describe what is meant by production & programming. Describe a production switcher. Briefly explain how to use a production switcher. What are some of the jobs/responsibilities of a production switcher operator. Describe an audio console. Briefly describe how to use an audio console. What are some of the jobs/responsibilities of a audio console operator? What are some recording/broadcasting equipment you might come in contact with in an actual studio? What is the difference between a hand held camera and a studio camera? Briefly describe how to use a studio camera.

135 STUDY QUESTIONS Directions: On your own paper WRITE the following questions and their answers. What are some different movements associated with a studio camera? What are some of the jobs/responsibilities of a studio camera operator? What does “CG” stand for? (there are two, list both) Describe what a studio “CG” operator does. What are some of the jobs/responsibilities of a “CG” operator? What are duties of a director, or floor director? What is a field log, and why is it important? What is a VTR log, and why is it important? What is a paper-pencil EDL, and why is it important? What is a computer generated EDL, and why is it important?

Directions: On your own paper WRITE the Terms and their definitions. Production switcher Audio console Studio camera Character generator Essential Area credits roll crawl Edit controller Edit Decision list (EDL) Linear editing Nonlinear Editing (NLE) Record VTR Slate Source Tape Source VTR Time code vector VTR log Window dub

PROJECT FILM YOUR OWN COMMERCIAL OBJECTIVE Students will work in groups of 4 to film their own commercial. Students will decide on a product or public service announcement (PSA) and using the information learned in previous standards, students will plan the commercial/PSA by completing a storyboard and a script before filming. The product must be legal to you as students and you must be able to film your commercial at school in the training studio “Studio B” without breaking any school rules. The product can be either fictional or a real product. All filming must be done on campus in “Studio B” and may only use characters that are in the class. You may not disrupt any student or group of students during the filming of your commercial/PSA. Students will also decide on a director, producer, cameraman, key grip, actors, etc… before filming. Everyone in the group must be visible on film at least once. As you film your commercial in class/lab, create and complete a Field Log for your commercial/PSA.

138 PROJECT MATERIALS Anything you can find for props - (It is very important that you make a list of all props/costume material that you and your group need to complete your commercial/PSA and that you note who is responsible for bringing the props. It may also be a good idea for you and your group to exchange phone numbers so that you can call each other if you think of something more or if you need to remind someone in your group to bring something.) TOOLS 1- Video Camera 1- Tripod 1- Computer for editing

139 PROJECT LIMITATIONS The Commercial/PSA can be no shorter than 30 seconds and no longer than 3 minutes There can be no illegal substances or references to illegal substances involved (unless it is a “just say no” PSA) All subject matter must be in line with laws and school rules as they apply to you as students. Your group will be assigned a certain amount of studio time in which you have to film. You may only use the assigned studio time to complete the filming of your commercial. In order to get into the studio during your assigned studio time, you must present your properly completed, computer generated script, storyboard, and a blank computer generated field log. INSTRUCTIONS You will have the first day that we work on this to decide who will do what in your groups and begin writing your script and drawing your storyboard. Do not rewind your tape and tape over material! You will need to log all shots, whether they are good or bad in your field log. Take at least 2 takes for every shot and remember to speak loudly and annunciate. Be creative and have fun!

140 PROJECT Grading Appropriately formatted computer generated script – 20 points Complete storyboard matching finished commercial 20 points. Commercial/PSA appropriate for school – 10 pts. Commercial between 30 seconds & 3 minutes – 10 pts. All group members shown on film – 10 pts. Each Student shown in the credits as holding a certain video production position – 10 pts. Completed Computer Generate Field Log – 20 pts.

141 Last Edit Day for everyone
PROJECT In order to get into the studio during your assigned studio time, you must present your properly completed, computer generated script, storyboard, and a blank computer generated field log. GROUP DAY STUDIO TIME 1 11/17 2:05 – 2:35 2 2:35 – 3:05 3 3:05 – 3:35 4 11/18 5 6 1-7 11/21 Edit Day for everyone 11/22 Last Edit Day for everyone


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