2Preproduction-Obtaining Material 3 stages to film: pre-production, production, post productionPreproduction-the planning stageStarts with development phase, when person or company buys the rights to literary work, screenplay, or story outlineOnce the rights are owned, no one else can turn it into a film
3PreproductionThe owner of the work hires scriptwriters to improve upon it and turn into a piece fit for filmAfter owner reviews script, she/he will either keep it or sell it to another interested movie studio
4Rejected FilmsSometimes, a potential film can go through this whole preproduction phase and never get turned into a filmActors may not sign onAnother studio may be making something similarDoesn’t have potential to make money
5Preproduction-Developing the Material Once the owner of a project gives it the OK, things kick into gearOwner hires “key personnel”: director, business manager, key talent and anyone else she/he wants to select personallyThese people hire the ones THEY want to work closely with: talent agents, lighting designers, sound engineers, special effects coordinators, etc.Preproduction requires months before cameras ever roll
6Preproduction-Script Development Once locations are arranged, then can the team arrange for things like transportation, travel budgets, props, food, housing the crewNow think of how many films require multiple locations…Storyboards: helps visualize the film, shot by shot or scene by sceneTurns the script into visual images
7Storyboard Activity Now watch the following clip Turn this clip into a storyboard
8ProductionProduction starts once the crew and talent arrive on set to shootActors have studied linesSound and lighting are all ready to goAfter a day’s worth of shooting is done, the director assembles her key people to review what has been shot that day, these being called dailiesDuring shooting, other people work away from the set: music composers, special effects designers, press releases
10EditingWhen a film wraps, actors and production personnel are done-and the postproduction crew gets startedThis crew is made up of director, film editor, sound editor, and assistantsMost important phase is editing-where miles of film and reels are cut and spliced together
11Editing Steps1-Director selects take she/he wants for every scene shot2-Now the order of the shots is decidedShots are usually decided after experimenting with their orderSergei Eisenstein, a Russian film pioneer, was the first to argue that the placement of shots (juxtaposition) is what gives films its power to communicateIt is up to the audience to provide closure to each shot based on the juxtaposition
12Steps Cont. 3-Now the shots are joined with a transition technique The cut is the most common technique. This is where a piece of film is literally cut and spliced to another piece of filmThe dissolve is another type of technique. This is when the shot on screen gets lighter and fades away as the next shot appears very lightly and takes over the screenA reaction shot is often used to show a person’s reaction to news or an event (EX. Someone on the phone is telling their friend they got a job, and the shot switches to the friend receiving the news).
13Adding SoundThough much of the sound in a film is recorded as filmed, as much and sometimes more is added during postproductionSounds that occur naturally in the course of a scene are referred to as ambient sounds-clinking of silverware, footsteps, a cough.Dialogue that needs to be recorded again is called looping.The actor watches herself/himself on screen in a recording studio and re-speaks their lines
14Sound Cont.The music of a film-it’s score-is actually recorded and added to a film at the right spots as well as the right volume.Libraries of sound effects are used for things like alien lasers to birds chirping out side a windowWhatever ambient sounds could not be recorded during shooting are performed in a sound studio and added during postproductionThis process is the work of a foley artist-this person is responsible for making the sounds like the slurping of soup, papers rustling, even kisses.
15Promotion and Distribution This last phase involves the selling of a film.Trailers (previews) are edited and sent to selected theaters.Pre-release (test) screenings are often held for randomly selected audiences.Test audiences are asked for reactions to the film before it is even released.While these test screenings are released, lawyers work behind the scenes to finish negotiations regarding distribution.
16Film ProjectYou are to prepare a 5 minute presentation analyzing ANY film of your choice You are to have at least 2 props to be presented to the class as a whole. The analysis of this film must include each area we have studied in class: Shots, frames, lighting, acting, color, sound, setting/costumes, etc. The analysis itself must be at LEAST 3 pages in length, NOT including pictures/stills from the movie. You have a choice: This analysis can either be presented in person OR taped and presented to the class the day it is due. If you decide to tape, you must be wearing professional clothing as if you are on TV reporting your opinion to your viewers.
17NO LATE PRESENTATIONS ACCEPTED Requirements:Paper-50 points*Length-minimum of 3 pages*Analysis of different areas covered in class*Cover page*Pictures being used*Sources that are used (and there should be sources)Presentation-50 points*Length- 5 minutes in length*Eye Contact*Body language*Tone*Props