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Poetry Terms/ Notes 9 th grade Mrs. Cook We dont read and write poetry because its cute. We read and write poetry because we are members of the human race.

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Presentation on theme: "Poetry Terms/ Notes 9 th grade Mrs. Cook We dont read and write poetry because its cute. We read and write poetry because we are members of the human race."— Presentation transcript:

1 Poetry Terms/ Notes 9 th grade Mrs. Cook We dont read and write poetry because its cute. We read and write poetry because we are members of the human race. And the human race is filled with passion. And medicine, law, business, engineering, these are noble pursuits and necessary to sustain life. But poetry, beauty, romance, love…these are what we stay alive for. -Keating- Dead Poets Society

2 Before we begin… Prose: Any written text that is not in poetic form. Prose: Any written text that is not in poetic form. Poetry: A type of literature that expresses ideas, feelings, or tells a story in a specific form (usually using lines and stanzas). Poetry: A type of literature that expresses ideas, feelings, or tells a story in a specific form (usually using lines and stanzas). Prosody: the study of the structure of poetry. Prosody: the study of the structure of poetry. Explication: the analysis of a poem. Explication: the analysis of a poem.

3 Types of Poetry: There are several types of poetry. We will look at three. There are several types of poetry. We will look at three. Note: Many poems fit in more than one category- it is not always easy to define a poem as just one type. Note: Many poems fit in more than one category- it is not always easy to define a poem as just one type.

4 Types of Poetry: Narrative poetry: narration of an event or a story Narrative poetry: narration of an event or a story –A form of narrative poetry would be a ballad or an epic poem. –Example of a ballad: Annabel Lee and The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe –Example of an epic poem: The Odyssey, Beowulf, Dantes Inferno.

5 Types of Poetry: Lyric Poetry: Lyric Poetry: –A short poem –Usually written in first person point of view and expresses personal thoughts/feelings –Expresses an emotion or an idea or describes a scene –Are often musical

6 Lyric poetry cont. A form of lyric poetry would be an elegy or an ode. A form of lyric poetry would be an elegy or an ode. –Elegy: a poem of lamentation or sorrow. –Ode: a song-like poem that is serious, dignified, and elaborate.

7 Types of Poetry: Dramatic Poetry: usually has one or more characters who speak to other characters, to themselves, or to the reader. Dramatic Poetry: usually has one or more characters who speak to other characters, to themselves, or to the reader. –Some parts of Romeo and Juliet contain examples of dramatic poetry. –We will not work with dramatic poetry that much this year.

8 NARRATIVE POEMS A poem that tells a story. A poem that tells a story. Generally longer than the lyric styles of poetry b/c the poet needs to establish characters and a plot. Generally longer than the lyric styles of poetry b/c the poet needs to establish characters and a plot. Examples of Narrative Poems The Raven The Highwayman Casey at the Bat The Walrus and the Carpenter

9 Poetry Terms to Know: Speaker: Every poem has a speaker, or voice, that talks to the reader. Like a narrator in prose, the speaker of the poem is not necessarily the author. The speaker can be a fictional person, an animal, or even a living thing. Speaker: Every poem has a speaker, or voice, that talks to the reader. Like a narrator in prose, the speaker of the poem is not necessarily the author. The speaker can be a fictional person, an animal, or even a living thing. POET: The poet is the author of the poem. SPEAKER: The speaker of the poem is the narrator of the poem.

10 Lines & Stanzas Lines: a word or row of words that may or may not make up a complete sentence Lines: a word or row of words that may or may not make up a complete sentence Stanza: a group of words that may or may not make up a complete sentence. Stanzas are separated by a space. Stanza: a group of words that may or may not make up a complete sentence. Stanzas are separated by a space.

11 KINDS OF STANZAS Couplet=a two line stanza Tercet =a three line stanza Quatrain=a four line stanza Quintet=a five line stanza Sestet =a six line stanza Septet=a seven line stanza Octet =an eight line stanza

12 Rhythm: is the pattern of sound created by the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables is the pattern of sound created by the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables Meter: the organization of beats in regular patterns. The basic unit of a meter is a foot which typically is made up of at least one stressed and one unstressed syllable. Meter: the organization of beats in regular patterns. The basic unit of a meter is a foot which typically is made up of at least one stressed and one unstressed syllable.

13 Rhyme: Is the repetition of similar sounds in words that appear close to each other in a poem Is the repetition of similar sounds in words that appear close to each other in a poem LAMP LAMP STAMP STAMP á Share the short a vowel sound á Share the combined mp consonant sound

14 Types of Rhyme: 1. Approximate Rhyme- when two words sounds are very close to rhyming but not exact Approximate Rhyme Example: Approximate Rhyme Example: –wire-right, mind-sign, sound-down

15 Types of Rhyme 2. End Rhyme- rhymes that occur at the end of a line 2. End Rhyme- rhymes that occur at the end of a line Ex: How statue-like I see thee stand, The agate lamp within thy hand. The agate lamp within thy hand. From To Helen by E. A. Poe

16 Types of Rhyme 3. Internal Rhyme: rhyming words that fall within a single line of poetry. 3. Internal Rhyme: rhyming words that fall within a single line of poetry. –Example: Judge tenderly of me Judge tenderly of me From This is My Letter to the World by Emily Dickinson.

17 Rhyme Scheme The pattern of rhyme formed by the end rhyme. It is identified by assigning a different letter to the alphabet to each new rhyme. (a,a,b,b) (a,b,a,b) The pattern of rhyme formed by the end rhyme. It is identified by assigning a different letter to the alphabet to each new rhyme. (a,a,b,b) (a,b,a,b) –Ex: Gather ye rosebuds while ye may (a) –Old time is still a flying (b) –And this same flower that smiles today (a) –Tomorrow will be dying (b) To the Virgins Make Much of Time by Robert Herrick To the Virgins Make Much of Time by Robert Herrick

18 Iambic Pentameter A poem that contains exactly 10 syllables per line. A poem that contains exactly 10 syllables per line. EX: EX: u/u/u/u/u/ Toswellthegourd,andplumptheha-zelshells

19 Heres a hint… When you are writing in Iambic Pentameter, try sticking to ONE or TWO syllable words. Remember this hint. We will practice this later when you write your own sonnet. When you are writing in Iambic Pentameter, try sticking to ONE or TWO syllable words. Remember this hint. We will practice this later when you write your own sonnet.

20 Figurative Language: Is a category of literary terms that is used for descriptive effect and is not meant to be read literally. Usually, figurative language expresses meaning beyond the literal level. Is a category of literary terms that is used for descriptive effect and is not meant to be read literally. Usually, figurative language expresses meaning beyond the literal level. –Literary Terms Figurative language (simile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole, symbol) Figurative language (simile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole, symbol) –Sound Devices (rhythm, rhyme, repetition, onomatopoeia, assonance, consonance, alliteration, anaphora, polysyndeton, euphony, cacophony)

21 Types of Figurative Language: Simile: comparing seemingly unlike things by using like or as Simile: comparing seemingly unlike things by using like or as Example: O, my loves like a red, red rose, Thats newly sprung in June- Thats newly sprung in June- - Robert Burns

22 Types of Figurative Language: Metaphor – compares or equates seemingly unlike things by stating one thing IS another. Metaphors do not use like or as. Metaphor – compares or equates seemingly unlike things by stating one thing IS another. Metaphors do not use like or as. –Ex: The grass is the handkerchief of the Lord. From Song of Myself by Walt Whitman –All the worlds a stage, and we are merely players. William Shakespeare.

23 EXTENDED METAPHOR A metaphor that goes several lines or possible the entire length of a work. Example O Captain, My Captain by Walt Whitman

24 Types of Figurative Language: Personification: is a figure of speech in which an animal, an object, or an idea is given human characteristics. Personification: is a figure of speech in which an animal, an object, or an idea is given human characteristics. – I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers, From the seas and the streams; I bear light shade for the leaves when laid In their noonday dreams. The Clouds Author unknown The Clouds Author unknown –Quoth the Raven Nevermore. From The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe From The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe

25 Types of Figurative Language: Hyperbole: an exaggeration, often for a humorous effect Hyperbole: an exaggeration, often for a humorous effect –EX: My sister uses so much make-up that she has to use a sandblaster to get it off at night. –I had so much homework that I needed a pick up truck to carry all my books home. –"I have seen this river so wide it had only one bank." Mark Twain

26 Sound Devices ONOMATOPOEIA ONOMATOPOEIA –Words that imitate the sound they are naming Boom, boom, pow Boom, boom, pow By The Black-Eyed Peas By The Black-Eyed Peas

27 ALLITERATION Consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings of words Consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings of words If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick? If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick?

28 CONSONANCE Repetition of consonant sounds at the end of words. Repetition of consonant sounds at the end of words. –Example of consonance: The man in the orange cumberbund ended his bland speech with a bow. speech with a bow.

29 ASSONANCE Repeated VOWEL sounds in a line or lines of poetry. Repeated VOWEL sounds in a line or lines of poetry. (Often creates near rhyme.) (Often creates near rhyme.) LakeFateBaseFade LakeFateBaseFade (All share the long a sound.) (All share the long a sound.)

30 Assonance (cont.) Examples of ASSONANCE: Slow the low gradual moan came in the snowing. - John Masefield Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep. - William Shakespeare

31 Litotes Understatement - basically the opposite of hyperbole. Often it is ironic. Ex. For example, rather than merely saying that a person is attractive (or even very attractive), one might say they are "not unattractive.

32 Idiom An expression where the literal meaning of the words is not the meaning of the expression. It means something other than what it actually says. An expression where the literal meaning of the words is not the meaning of the expression. It means something other than what it actually says. Ex. Its raining cats and dogs. Ex. Its raining cats and dogs.

33 Anaphora The repetition of a word or expression at the beginning of successive phrases The repetition of a word or expression at the beginning of successive phrases –Example: It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of light, it was the season of darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair… A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens

34 Anaphora The repetition of a word or expression at the beginning of successive phrases The repetition of a word or expression at the beginning of successive phrases –Example: It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of light, it was the season of darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair… A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens

35 Anaphora cont. Another example of anaphora… Another example of anaphora… And do you now put on your best attire? And do you now cull out a holiday? And do you now strew flowers in his way That comes in triumph over Pompeys blood? Be gone! from Julius Caesar- Shakespeare

36 Polysyndeton Repetition of a conjunction throughout a piece. Repetition of a conjunction throughout a piece. Example: We all lived and laughed and loved and left. Example: We all lived and laughed and loved and left. –What are conjunctions? Remember BOYSFAN Remember BOYSFAN

37 Pun A play on words often meant to be humorous A play on words often meant to be humorous Ex: I work as a baker because I knead dough. Ex: I work as a baker because I knead dough.

38 Oxymoron An adjective modifying a noun when the two seem contradictory. An adjective modifying a noun when the two seem contradictory. Ex: Hells Angels, jumbo shrimp, act naturally, pretty ugly Ex: Hells Angels, jumbo shrimp, act naturally, pretty ugly


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