1Poetry Terms/ Notes 9th grade Mrs. Cook “We don’t read and write poetry because it’s cute. We read and write poetry because we are members of the human race. And the human race is filled with passion. And medicine, law, business, engineering, these are noble pursuits and necessary to sustain life. But poetry, beauty, romance, love…these are what we stay alive for.”-Keating- Dead Poet’s Society
2Before we begin… Prose: Any written text that is not in poetic form. Poetry: A type of literature that expresses ideas, feelings, or tells a story in a specific form (usually using lines and stanzas).Prosody: the study of the structure of poetry.Explication: the analysis of a poem.
3Types of Poetry:There are several types of poetry. We will look at three.Note: Many poems fit in more than one category- it is not always easy to define a poem as just one type.
4Types of Poetry: Narrative poetry: narration of an event or a story A form of narrative poetry would be a ballad or an epic poem.Example of a ballad: “Annabel Lee” and “The Raven” by Edgar Allan PoeExample of an epic poem: “The Odyssey”, “Beowulf”, “Dante’s Inferno”.
5Types of Poetry: Lyric Poetry: A short poem Usually written in first person point of view and expresses personal thoughts/feelingsExpresses an emotion or an idea or describes a sceneAre often musical
6Lyric poetry cont. A form of lyric poetry would be an elegy or an ode. Elegy: a poem of lamentation or sorrow.Ode: a song-like poem that is serious, dignified, and elaborate.
7Types of Poetry:Dramatic Poetry: usually has one or more characters who speak to other characters, to themselves, or to the reader.Some parts of “Romeo and Juliet” contain examples of dramatic poetry.We will not work with dramatic poetry that much this year.
8NARRATIVE POEMS A poem that tells a story. Generally longer than the lyric styles of poetry b/c the poet needs to establish characters and a plot.Examples of Narrative Poems“The Raven”“The Highwayman”“Casey at the Bat”“The Walrus and the Carpenter”
9Poetry Terms to Know:Speaker: Every poem has a speaker, or voice, that talks to the reader. Like a narrator in prose, the speaker of the poem is not necessarily the author. The speaker can be a fictional person, an animal, or even a living thing.POET: The poet is the author of the poem.SPEAKER: The speaker of the poem is the “narrator” of the poem.
10Lines & StanzasLines: a word or row of words that may or may not make up a complete sentenceStanza: a group of words that may or may not make up a complete sentence. Stanzas are separated by a space.
11KINDS OF STANZAS Couplet = a two line stanza Tercet = a three line stanzaQuatrain = a four line stanzaQuintet = a five line stanzaSestet = a six line stanzaSeptet = a seven line stanzaOctet = an eight line stanza
12Rhythm:is the pattern of sound created by the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllablesMeter: the organization of beats in regular patterns. The basic unit of a meter is a foot which typically is made up of at least one stressed and one unstressed syllable.
13Rhyme:Is the repetition of similar sounds in words that appear close to each other in a poemLAMPSTAMPShare the short “a” vowel soundShare the combined “mp” consonant sound
14Types of Rhyme:1. Approximate Rhyme- when two words’ sounds are very close to rhyming but not exactApproximate Rhyme Example:wire-right, mind-sign, sound-down
15Types of Rhyme 2. End Rhyme- rhymes that occur at the end of a line Ex: How statue-like I see thee stand,The agate lamp within thy hand.From “To Helen” by E. A. Poe
16Types of Rhyme3. Internal Rhyme: rhyming words that fall within a single line of poetry.Example:Judge tenderly of meFrom “This is My Letter to the World” by Emily Dickinson.
17Rhyme SchemeThe pattern of rhyme formed by the end rhyme. It is identified by assigning a different letter to the alphabet to each new rhyme. (a,a,b,b) (a,b,a,b)Ex: Gather ye rosebuds while ye may (a)Old time is still a flying (b)And this same flower that smiles today (a)Tomorrow will be dying (b)“To the Virgins Make Much of Time” by Robert Herrick
18Iambic Pentameter A poem that contains exactly 10 syllables per line. u/Toswellthegourd,andplumpha-zelshells
19Here’s a hint…When you are writing in Iambic Pentameter, try sticking to ONE or TWO syllable words. Remember this hint. We will practice this later when you write your own sonnet.
20Figurative Language:Is a category of literary terms that is used for descriptive effect and is not meant to be read literally. Usually, figurative language expresses meaning beyond the literal level.Literary TermsFigurative language (simile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole, symbol)Sound Devices (rhythm, rhyme, repetition, onomatopoeia, assonance, consonance, alliteration, anaphora, polysyndeton, euphony, cacophony)
21Types of Figurative Language: Simile: comparing seemingly unlike things by using “like” or “as”Example: “O, my love’s like a red, red rose,That’s newly sprung in June-”- Robert Burns
22Types of Figurative Language: Metaphor – compares or equates seemingly unlike things by stating one thing IS another. Metaphors do not use like or as.Ex: The grass is the handkerchief of the Lord. From “Song of Myself” by Walt Whitman“All the world’s a stage, and we are merely players”.William Shakespeare.
23EXTENDED METAPHORA metaphor that goes several lines or possible the entire length of a work.Example “O Captain, My Captain” by Walt Whitman
24Types of Figurative Language: Personification: is a figure of speech in which an animal, an object, or an idea is given human characteristics.I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers,From the seas and the streams;I bear light shade for the leaves when laidIn their noonday dreams.“The Clouds” Author unknown“Quoth the Raven “Nevermore.”From “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe
25Types of Figurative Language: Hyperbole: an exaggeration, often for a humorous effectEX: My sister uses so much make-up that she has to use a sandblaster to get it off at night.I had so much homework that I needed a pick up truck to carry all my books home."I have seen this river so wide it had only one bank." Mark Twain
26Sound Devices ONOMATOPOEIA “Boom, boom, pow” Words that imitate the sound they are naming“Boom, boom, pow”By The Black-Eyed Peas
27ALLITERATION Consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings of words If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick?
28CONSONANCE Repetition of consonant sounds at the end of words. Example of consonance: The man in the orange cumberbund ended his blandspeech with a bow.
29(All share the long “a” sound.) ASSONANCERepeated VOWEL sounds in a line or lines of poetry.(Often creates near rhyme.)Lake Fate Base Fade(All share the long “a” sound.)
30Assonance (cont.) Examples of ASSONANCE: “Slow the low gradual moan came in the snowing.”John Masefield“Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep.”- William Shakespeare
31LitotesUnderstatement - basically the opposite of hyperbole. Often it is ironic.Ex. For example, rather than merely saying that a person is attractive (or even very attractive), one might say they are "not unattractive” .
32IdiomAn expression where the literal meaning of the words is not the meaning of the expression. It means something other than what it actually says.Ex. It’s raining cats and dogs.
33AnaphoraThe repetition of a word or expression at the beginning of successive phrasesExample: It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of light, it was the season of darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair…” A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens
34AnaphoraThe repetition of a word or expression at the beginning of successive phrasesExample: It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of light, it was the season of darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair…” A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens
35Anaphora cont. Another example of anaphora… And do you now put on your best attire?And do you now cull out a holiday?And do you now strew flowers in his wayThat comes in triumph over Pompey’s blood? Be gone!”from Julius Caesar- Shakespeare
36Polysyndeton Repetition of a conjunction throughout a piece. Example: We all lived and laughed and loved and left.What are conjunctions?Remember BOYSFAN
37Pun A play on words often meant to be humorous Ex: I work as a baker because I knead dough.
38OxymoronAn adjective modifying a noun when the two seem contradictory.Ex: Hell’s Angels, jumbo shrimp, act naturally, pretty ugly