Presentation on theme: "Mexican poet Octavio Paz believes that “the poem is an original and unique creation, but it is also reading and recitation: participation.” Paz’s point."— Presentation transcript:
Mexican poet Octavio Paz believes that “the poem is an original and unique creation, but it is also reading and recitation: participation.” Paz’s point is that poetry is meant to be read, understood, and enjoyed. Literary elements such as figurative language, rhyme, and rhythm help us to enjoy a poem.
Who is the narrator in short stories or non- fiction? The speaker in poetry is the voice that communicates with the reader. The author and the narrator are not the same.
Structure - the organization of images, ideas, and words. Stanzas—how poets organize the ideas in the poems; the “paragraphs” of poetry. Lines – what each stanza is made up of; rows of words that may or may not form sentences. Form - the external pattern of a poem, often dictates such elements as rhythm, meter, and rhyme. Organization
Rhythm - the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry. A poem’s rhythm can be regular or irregular. Foot – the basic unit of stressed and unstressed syllables Iamb - a foot that contains an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. Rhythm and Meter
Meter is the regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables that can establish the rhythm of a poem. Types of Meter Trimeter – 3 feet Tetrameter – 4 feet Pentameter – 5 feet
Rhyme is the repetition of the same stressed vowel sounds and any succeeding sounds in two or more words. For example, stop rhymes with drop. Internal rhyme occurs when two words in the same line rhyme. End rhyme occurs at the end of lines. In this passage, the end rhymes are underlined. Slant rhyme occurs when the sounds of words are similar but not identical Rhyme
Rhyme Scheme – pattern of the end rhyme in a poem. You mark the rhyme scheme of a poem by using a different letter of the alphabet for each new rhyme. A for the first rhyme and B for the second and so on. Roses are red. - A Violets are blue. - B Sugar is sweet. - C And so are you. - B
Imagery is descriptive language that appeals to one or more of the five senses: sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. Some images appeal to more than one sense. Imagery
A figure of speech is a word or expression that is not meant to be taken literally. A simile uses the word like or as to compare two seemingly unlike things. A metaphor compares two or more different things by stating or implying that one thing is another. Extended metaphor continues throughout the entire poem. The poem is actually about something different than the words suggest. Figures of Speech
Personification attributes human characteristics to an animal, object, or idea. Hyberbole this figure of speech uses exaggeration for dramatic effect. Poets use it to add flair to their writing. Paradox is a statement that appears to be contradictory but is actually true. Figures of Speech
Metaphor Read the excerpt from “An Indian Summer Day” by Vachel Linsday. “The sun is a smoldering fire, That creeps through the high gray plain.” In what ways is the sun similar to a smoldering fire? What effect do you think the author wanted the metaphor to have?
Sound devices – writers use these to underscore the meaning of certain words, to enhance rhythm, and to add to the musical quality of the work. Alliteration—repetition of consonant sounds at the beginnings of words—writer might use it to draw the reader’s attention to the words and idea behind them. Repetition – repeating a sound, word, phrase, line, or even an entire stanza and is another frequently used sound device. Sound Devices
Assonance – the repetition of the same or similar vowel sounds in neighboring words within the lines of poetry Consonance—when two words have different vowel sounds but share a single consonant sound. It occurs in the middle or end of words. Onomatopoeia – the use of a word or phrase that imitates or suggests the sound of what it describes. Sound Devices
Sound Devices Read the excerpt from “Lineage” by Margaret Walker. “They were full of sturdiness and singing. My grandmothers were strong.” How does the repetition of the s sound affect these lines of the poem?
Sound Devices Think of the sounds you hear in a given location such as a crowded room, sporting event, the woods, or on a bus or a train. Make a list of the sounds. How many words on the list can you make into an onomatopoeia?
Guide to Reading Poetry ●Pay attention to the ways a poem may “refresh language” and make it seem new. ●Use your emotions, experiences, and imagination to help you create meaning in a poem. ●Read a poem at least three times: once for enjoyment, once for meaning, and once for structure and language. ●Respond to a poem as a whole before analyzing its details.
●Poems are organized into stanzas. Each stanza contains one or more lines. ●Imagery is descriptive language that appeals to the five senses: sight, sound, smell, touch, taste. ●Figurative language is language used for descriptive effect, often to imply ideas indirectly. Elements of Poetry
●A figure of speech is a word or expression that is not meant to be taken literally. ●Rhythm is the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry. ●Rhyme and other sound devices repeat certain sounds to create musical effects. Elements of Poetry