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AICE International History 1945 -1991 ~ The Cold War Introduction and The Origins Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High School Jacksonville, FL.

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Presentation on theme: "AICE International History 1945 -1991 ~ The Cold War Introduction and The Origins Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High School Jacksonville, FL."— Presentation transcript:

1 AICE International History 1945 -1991 ~ The Cold War Introduction and The Origins Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High School Jacksonville, FL

2 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 2 Pictorial Overview

3 Consider Where You Have Been Twenty-one years separated the two world wars, providing their combatants with time to recover from their losses, restore some semblance of domestic order, redefine their national interests, and prepare for future challenges…but that was not true after World War II…it was only six months after the Japanese surrender that Winston Churchill gloomily proclaimed that an iron curtain had descended across central Europe Hook & Spanier (2007). American Foreign Policy Since World War II, p. 50. Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 3

4 Consider The Cold War is [was] more than a sum of events- rather it underscores [d] how the Cold Wars symbolic power and the tension that drove it depended on local conditions that always eluded complete control ( by the USA and the USSR) (pp. xxix-xxx) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 4

5 AICE International History Theme Suggestions 1.The Origins of the Cold War after WW II 2.The Globalization of the Cold War 3.The Crisis of Communism and the End of the Cold War 4.The Nuclear Arms Race, 1945-1991 5.The Development of the International Economy, 1945-1991 6.The Third World Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 5

6 Distinct Cold War Phases (consider marker events for each; overviews follow) 1. 1945 - 1953 2. 1954 - 1964 3. 1965 - 1979 4. 1980 - 1991 (Encyclopedia of the Cold War Edited by Ruud van Dijk Routledge: New York: NY) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 6

7 Cold War Era # 1: 1945 - 1953 Product of WW II, & its immediate aftermath (Truman/Stalin Era) Shaped from alliances, agreements, and the geo-political shake out from WWII Expanding USA influence in W. Europe V. the expanding territorial reach of USSR (esp. in Eastern Europe) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 7

8 Cold War # 1: 1945-1953 Extends beyond Europe into Asia (and elsewhere) It begins to engender a nuclear arms race Domestic politics will influence & will be influenced by the conflict Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 8

9 Cold War Era # 2: 1954-1964 Coincides with Khrushchevs years in power Soviet-American competition over nuclear domination Fragmentation of the communist and capitalist blocs Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 9

10 Cold War Era # 2: 1954-1964 (Continued Impact of Decolonization) 3. Continued expansion of the Cold War to the expanding Third World (Cuba, Vietnam, Laos) 4. Emergence of the non-aligned movement Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 10

11 Cold War Era # 3: 1965-1979 Rise and fall of détente –Warsaw Pact intervenes in Czechoslovakia further solidifying the status quo in Europe –China & USSR fight a border war (Sino/Soviet Split) –USA begins to normalize relations with China –Escalation of turmoil in the developing world i.e. Vietnam, China (Cultural Revolution), Africa, Central America, and the Middle East Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 11

12 Cold War Era # 3: 1965-1979 Various European countries and activists begin to question the logic behind the Cold War –Ostpolitik (West Germany / Willy Brandt) –Student protests –European diplomatic push for détente and cooperation resulting in the Helsinki Accords of 1975 –Ends with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 12

13 Cold War Era # 4: 1980-1991 Renewed East-West tension including a new phase in the arms race Initial Hardened policies under President Reagan (Evil Empire) Poland 1981 (martial law w/ Soviet Backing) Poland: Solidarity Movement (UP, Underground, Up Again) Rise of Gorbachevs New Thinking, and Yeltsin End of the Cold War 1989 - 1991 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 13

14 The Cold War Each new revelation from Soviet, East European, and Chinese archives makes it starkly clear that the history of the Cold war must be reexamined…we learned that along with the hard power of the spheres of influence, bombs and missiles, there was thesoft power of fear and suspicion, distorted perceptions that had driven both sides, the West and the Soviet Union, to continue the Cold War (Zubock,1996, xii, xiii) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 14

15 AICE Essay Construction Prompts will ask you to agree or refute a statement –Take a stand without using the word I –Logically disagreeing with a prompt, especially if YOU add balance, demonstrates written sophistication –Answer the question asked, do not create your own Key to AICE Essays is BALANCE (always) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 15

16 AICE ESSAYS: General Essays are commitments on paper! Words by themselves prove NOTHING! –i.e. This demonstrated that… (Garbage) You must communicate in an explicit manner via the written word! You must demonstrate the This by taking advantage of the following Mantra! Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 16

17 YOUR AICE Essay Mantra I will EXPLICITLY explain the HOW and WHY for each of my thoughts and will religiously reinforce these thoughts with real-world examples Failure to do so will lead to my academic demise. It will force me to look into my mirror and to gaze at the ultimate cause of this academic evil… Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 17

18 Be Forewarned Sailor! Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 18

19 AICE Essay: Origins Theme Do NOT get drawn into blaming the ultimate cause on one side or the other (unless?) Leave one-sided emotions out of your thoughts –Assess the view that neither the USA nor the USSR wanted a Cold War to develop in Europe in the years 1945-1949 or –Which of the following has the best claim to mark the start of the Cold War: Churchills Iron Curtain speech, 1946; the Truman Doctrine, 1947; the Berlin Blockade, 1948-49? Explain your answer (can you choose one, but balance each of your body paragraphs?) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 19

20 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 20 Cold War Origin Theories –Traditional/Orthodox : Stalin was the main instigator, especially considering his aggressive behavior in Eastern Europe and his lies (from Yalta) about free and open elections. –Revisionist : The aggressive anti-communist stance (especially by Truman) and use of bombs against the Japanese led some to blame Truman for the start of the Cold War. –Post-Revisionist : Both the U.S.S.R. & the United States were mutually responsible for the origins of the Cold War.

21 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 21 Causes of the Cold War Fear, Mistrust, Domestic Politics, Misinterpretations, Ideological Differences the International System, World-wide Opportunities, Maintaining a balance of power, Germany, control ones destiny, Russo-Centricism, and McCarthyism Expansionism & the Geo-political shake- out towards the end of WWII!

22 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 22 Cold War: Origins 1920s – 1930s: Neither the USA or the USSR was a world military power 1933: FDR established formal diplomatic ties with the USSR (remember the USA had backed the Mensheviks versus the Bolsheviks)

23 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 23 Cold War: Early Conferences 1.Casablanca : –January 1943 –FDR & Winston Churchill meet –Stalin was not invited, adds to his mistrust –War could only end with a full, unconditional German surrender Casablancas Big Two

24 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 24 Next Step: The Grand Alliance 2.Tehran, Iran (pledge to free the world of tyranny/war) November 29-December 1, 1943 FDR, Churchill, & Stalin (decide that the UK & US Would invade N. France in the summer of 1944) What to do with Germany after the war (briefly)? NOTE In between Tehran (Nov./Dec 1943) & Yalta ( Feb. 1945) Churchill and FDR will have another meeting!

25 Quebec City, Canada (September 1944) Roosevelt & Churchill meet without Stalin Discuss : –Future occupation of Germany –Lend-lease supplies for Britain Eventually exceeds $31 billion –British naval support against Japan –Eastern Europe was not discussed Even though Romania & Bulgaria were overrun by the Red Army, and still on the march!!! (Plokhy, p. 25) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 25

26 Quebec City, Canada (September 1944) Churchill felt that after Quebec and before the next meeting of the Big 3 he had to see Stalin in Moscow! –FDR could not attend due to his 4 th Presidential campaign –Churchill feared Stalin would sign a separate peace with Hitler –Churchill also had Poland and the Balkans (esp. Greece) on his mind (sends paratroopers to the Greek mainland BEFORE he meets with Stalin) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 26

27 The British Enter Greece (Plokhy, p. 145) The British Invasion of Greece was more of an occupation for politico-military objectives –A few days before Churchill goes to Moscow (the Brits inch into Greece) –WHY? Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 27

28 Churchill Communism raised its head behind the thundering Russian battle-front. Russia was the Deliverer, and Communism, the gospel she brought ! (Winston Churchill) (Plokhy, p. 145) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 28

29 Moscow (Churchill & Stalin, No FDR: October 1944) Conversations start with Poland, then the Balkans Poland was the acid test of Soviet goodwill…if the Western Allies were determined to address Poland at Yalta, the Soviets were reluctant (Plokhy, p. 153) To cement his new relationship, Churchill confided that he did not like the details of Americas plan for the new United Nations…secrecy… business behind FDRs back? (Greece/Britain, Turkey/ Stalin is Eyeing) (Plokhy, p.146) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 29

30 Moscow (Churchill & Stalin, No FDR: October 1944) Churchill gives Stalin percentage deals (like Stalin will abide, yeah right Yugoslavia 50%-50% I dont think so!) –i.e. Bulgaria 75 % Soviet Influence - 25% British –America will not be told about this % deal –The irony of Churchill and his Eastern European percentages should not be lost here! Churchills infamous Iron Curtain speech is still looming! Do you think Stalin truly feels that Britain will be more of a future player when compared to the USA? (Plokhy, p.146-148) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 30

31 Yalta: The Price of Peace Written by S. M. Plokhy (published 2010) Western Dilemma at Yalta Was it better to accept the reality of Soviet military dominance in Eastern Europe and dissociate themselves politically and morally from what the Soviets were doing there, or, on the contrary, should they try to influence the situation by cultivating the Soviets and thus implicitly legitimizing their rule? (p. 151) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 31

32 Yalta Churchill wants resolution on Poland By Feb. 1945 the Soviet Red Army occupied Poland A provisional government was set up by the pro-communist Polish Committee on National Liberation (PCNL) Talks with the exiled London Poles had broken down after the Germans reported the NKVD killings of Poles at Katyn Forest Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 32

33 Yalta: Day-to-Day Topics February 4, 1945 (Day One): Military Concerns February 5, 1945 (Day Two): Dismemberment of Germany/Zones of Occupation, Reparations, length of stay, future German Government, and what unconditional surrender meant February 6, 1945 (Day Three): Creation of a United Nations, future role of France (esp. after FDRs Hint of leaving), Poland, Free Elections, Borders, (indirectly) a need for a buffer zone for the Soviets, and the Curzon line (the first communiqué was okd) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 33

34 Yalta Topics February 7, 1945 (Day Four): Poland, the United Nations, Eastern Europe, and Soviet entry into the war against Japan February 8, 1945 (Day Five): Iran, Current Military Fronts and the continued bombing of Germany February 9, 1945 (Day Six): Japan, A U.N., US Bases in the Far East, Poland, supplies ( The Declaration on Liberated Europe was brought forth) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 34

35 Yalta Topics February 10, 1945 (Day Seven/ The Last Full Day): Picture Taken, Polish Free Elections, Nazi War Criminals, Yugoslavia & Tito, Prisoners of War, and Turkey & control of the Black Sea (Stalin wants this, like many Soviet rulers before him) February 11, 1945 (Day Eight): Poland, the UN, and Iran Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 35

36 Yalta Compromise on Poland PCNL government would be reorganized to include democratic leaders (LIE) The Brits and Americans agreed to the Curzon Line as the Polish-USSR border –Moscows gains under the auspices of the Nazi- Soviet pact were now formally recognized –To compensate Poland for its territorial losses in the East by adjusting their border with Germany, no exact locations were discussed –Russia entering the war against Japan was also discussed (after Germany surrendered, Russia would reclaim lands lost in 1904/05 Russo-Japanese War) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 36

37 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 37 The Declaration on Liberated Europe (Presented by the Americans on Feb. 9 th, 1945 signed a short time later by all three nations) To foster the conditions in which the liberated peoples may exercise those [democratic] rights, all three governments will jointly assist the people in any European liberated state or former axis satellite state in Europe…to form representative governments, facilitate free elections, etc.

38 Declaration on Liberated Europe …a peculiar document. No piece of paper approved by the Big Three become more prominent immediately after the conference…all three powers agreed to adhere in their treatment of the countries liberated from the Nazis, which at the time of signing, the British were openly violating in Greece and the Soviets in Poland (Plokhy, p. 263) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 38

39 Declaration on Liberated Europe The problem was that Stalin was not the only leader to disregard the Declaration. With his policies in Italy and Greece, Churchill ignored the principles of the declaration, just as he had ignored the Atlantic Charter in Iran…the degree to which the British violated the declaration was different, but disregard was plain for the world to see! (Plokhy, p. 401) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 39

40 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 40 Yalta By May 1945, in central and eastern Europe, the Red Army had liberated and re-occupied Hungary, Poland, and most of Czechoslovakia. The shape of post-war Europe was dictated in the first instance not by wartime deals and accords but rather by the whereabouts of occupying armies when the Germans surrendered (Judt, p. 102-103) The truly important issue-arrangements for post- war Germany- were off the table [at Yalta] precisely because it was so important and intractable (Judt, p. 102) (Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945, Tony Judt, pp. 102-103)

41 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 41 April – July 1945 April 12, 1945 FDR Dies May 7, 1945 Germany Surrenders & is partitioned May 11, 1945 Truman cuts off wartime supplies to the USSR July 16, 1945US Atomic Bomb Test

42 Tripartite Cooperation Create a successor to the defunct League of Nations (VIP for FDR) –Led to the Dumbarton Oaks Conference (Aug.- Sept. 1944), and –The San Francisco Conference (Apr. – June 1945) The Moscow Foreign Ministers Meeting led to the development of the European Advisory Commission –Eventually decides to cut Germany into three zones Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 42

43 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 43 The Big Three: Potsdam Potsdam, Germany- worn-torn suburb of Berlin July 17–Aug. 2, 1945 Begins one day after America tested its first atomic bomb Attlee In, Churchill Out

44 Potsdam ( Via Ambrose and Brinkley) At Potsdam, Truman: –Learned that the only thing the Russians understood was force (p. 66)… [Truman] would not allow the Russians any part in the control of Japan…if any nation did become aggressive…the United States would use the atomic bomb…the strategy would later be called massive retaliation (p. 67) …[but the] American possession of the bomb had no noticeable effect on Stalins policy in Eastern Europe…[Stalin] continued to do as he pleased (p. 68) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 44

45 Potsdam, Germany Sets the stage for the division of the continent into East and West The difficult lessons of Versailles (1919) were still fresh in the minds of the leaders in 1945 Not intended to produce a formal peace treaty, only lasts 16 days Trumans immediate purpose was to get the Russians into the war against Japan ( Ambrose & Brinkley, p. 64) …[the other major issue] at Potsdam was Germany ( Ambrose & Brinkley, p. 65) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 45

46 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 46 Potsdam, Germany USA s wishes about Germany: –A Strong & United Germany –Rid Germany of Nazism –Hold Nazi Trials –Break Apart German Military –Control German Industrial Production –Build a new Germany along Capitalism and Democracy –Truman also told not to trust Stalin by FDRs people

47 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 47 Potsdam, Germany USSRs wishes about Germany – A weak government, – large reparations Monetarily, raw materials, industrial equipment and Factories Soviet Security from future attacks ( Creation of a Buffer Zone )

48 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 48 A Shift in Soviet Borders At the Yalta conference he [Stalin] agreed [to free elections] We can implement it in our own way later. The heart of the matter is the correlation of forces…the Soviet Unions borders were moved several hundred miles to the west, and the Red Army installed subservient regimes throughout the rest of Eastern Europe (Gaddis, p. 21)

49 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 49 Potsdam Declaration & Beyond (President Truman) July 26 1945 (The Potsdam Declaration) –Calls for an unconditional Japanese surrender August 6, 1945 Hiroshima Bombing August 8, 1945 USSR declares war on Japan, and invades Manchuria August 9, 1945 Nagasaki Bombing

50 Atomic Warfare Were the bombs primarily used to save American lives? – NOT according to British physicist P.M.S. Blackett –[it was] the first major operation of the cold war diplomatic war with Russia…Its primary purpose was to keep Russia out of the Far Eastern postwar settlement rather than save American lives (p. 47, Ambrose & Brinkley) (Revisionist Ideology as to who started the cold war) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 50

51 Atomic Warfare A parallel interpretation claims that the American intention was to impress the Russians with the power of the bomb and to make it clear to them that the United States would not hesitate to use it…America had already deployed the bulk of her troops out of Western Europe…so that by August of 1945 the Red Army was the most powerful force in all of Europe. To those who concerned about a possible Russian advance across the Elbe River, the bomb seemed a perfect deterrent (p. 47, Ambrose & Brinkley) Once again this is part of the revisionist theory! Kevin acerdote (Content) (Design) 51

52 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 52 Japanese Surrender August 14 th, 1945 Japan Surrender September 2 nd, 1945 Formal Surrender USS Missouri

53 Dean Acheson 1893-1971 Mainly Synonymous with Truman but also: –1941-1944 Handled Lend-Lease aid to Britain –1944 leading State Dept. official @ Bretton Woods (IMF, World Bank, and failed WTO) –1945 Was Washingtons coordinator for Gen. Marshalls attempt to broker a deal between Nationalists and Communists in China Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 53

54 Dean Acheson: The Getting Tough with the Soviets Period 1946: After StalinsTwo Camps speech He asks George Kennan in Moscow to evaluate Soviet policy Kennans long Telegram and the policy of Containment would be born Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 54

55 Getting Tough with The Soviet Period What would the revisionists say, and Why? –BUT he did head General Marshalls failed attempt to broker a deal between the Nationalists and Communists in the Chinese Civil War –What soviet actions in 1946 caused Acheson to adopt a firmer plan against Moscow? (Stay Tuned) –He also helped negotiate an end to the Berlin Blockade. Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 55

56 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 56 WW II Odds & Ends Britain heavily in debt USSR heavily in debt, over 20 million dead –Agricultural & Industrial Economies in Ruin –Must avoid further military action USA exits the war as the leading world power –GNP: (1939) $90 Billion (1945) $211 Billion

57 Acheson (continued) 1947: Criticizes the U.S.S.R. for not leaving Iran He begins his push for the Truman Doctrine due to soviet involvement in Turkey, he later pushes for the Marshall Plan 1949: Follows Gen. Marshall (sick) as Sec. of State, and finalizes the creation of N.A.T.O. (incl. Art #5 – promise to defend each other Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 57

58 Acheson President Truman goes after Senator Joe McCarthy –Claims the Department of State is SOFT on communism, and were harboring communists as well. –Source: The Encyclopedia of the Cold War (Volume 1) edited by Roud van Dijk. Rutledge Taylor and Francis Group (2008, pp. 4-6) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 58

59 Acheson 1949 Soviets test their bomb Mao raises the Red Flag in Beijing (10/1/1949) Truman/Acheson blamed for losing China Asks Truman to issue NSC-68 –Increase military spendingplus June 25 th, 1950 North Korea invades S.K. Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 59

60 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 60 1946 January – Ernest Bevin, British Foreign Minister –Speaks out against about the USSR intimidation in Turkey and Iran February 3 rd –Reports of a Soviet Spy ring sending US atomic bomb secrets to Moscow February 9 th Stalins Two Camps Speech (implies our worlds are incompatible)

61 STALIN INSTALLS PUPPET GOVERNMENTS Stalin installed satellite communist governments in the Eastern European countries of Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia and East Germany This after promising free elections for Eastern Europe at the Yalta Conference In a 1946 speech, Stalin said communism and capitalism were incompatible – and another war was inevitable

62 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 62 1946 February 22 –Kennans 8,000 word Telegram –USA must drop isolationism and CONTAIN the USSR February 28 th –Sec. of State Brynes condemns the USSR for not getting out of Iran

63 starter activity

64 Winston Churchills Iron Curtain Speech, 1946 From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe … Police governments are prevailing in nearly every case, and so far, except in Czechoslovakia, there is no true democracy … Except in the British Commonwealth, and in the United States, where communism is in its infancy, the Communist parties or fifth columns constitute a growing challenge and peril to Christian civilization … there is nothing they [Russians] admire so much as strength, and there is nothing for which they have less respect than for military weakness. For that reason the old doctrine of a balance of power is unsound. Contextualizations 1.British Motive: Churchill wanted to prevent U.S. return to pre-war isolationism 2.Soviet Response: Stalin accused Churchill of issuing a call to war with the Soviet Union 3.U.S. Response: Wall Street Journal: The countrys response to Mr. Churchills Fulton speech must be convincing proof that the US wants no alliance or anything that resembles an alliance, with any other nation. 4.African American Protests: speech delivered at segregated Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri

65 THE IRON CURTAIN. (THE FULTON SPEECH MARCH 1946 – CHURCHILL). From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in many cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow.

66 Winston Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech was never published by the Soviet press -- only in May 1998 did it appear in Russian in a historical archival journal. Stalin himself informed his people about it in Pravda. He compared Churchill to Hitler and described him as "a warmonger" who aimed at "Anglo-Saxon... racial world domination. At the same time, he claimed that the Soviet Union, despite recent war losses, was capable of waging and winning another war. Stalin's harsh reaction was calculated, not emotional. After the fall of 1945, the Soviet dictator had begun preparations for a possible confrontation with the West. In addition to atomic and other military projects, he launched a campaign to disabuse his lieutenants of any "illusions" about the West's -- and Churchill's -- good will. The "Iron Curtain" speech gave him a pretext for mobilizing the Soviet people against their former allies. SOVIET REACTION TO CHURCHILLS SPEECH.

67 The Soviet Union hated Marshall aid (see Source D). Stalin forbade Communist countries to ask for money. Instead, in October 1947, he set up Cominform. Every Communist party in Europe joined. It allowed Stalin control of the Communists in Europe. Source E 'Can he block it?' This cartoon of 1947 about Cominform shows Stalin trying to stop the basketball of 'Marshall aid' scoring the basket labelled 'European recovery'. SOVIET REACTION - COMINFORM

68 THE CZECHOSLOVAKIA CRISIS 1948 At first, the American Congress did not want to give the money for Marshall Aid. But then, in February 1948, the Communists took power in Czechoslovakia, followed on 10 March by the suspicious suicide of the popular minister Jan Masaryk. Congress was scared, and voted for Marshall Aid on 31 March 1948. Source F A British cartoon of June 1947 shows Truman and Stalin as two taxi-drivers trying to get customers. The 'customers' are labelled 'Turkey', 'Hungary', 'Bulgaria', 'Austria'.



71 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 71 1946 March 5 th 1.Byrnes ORDERS the USSR out of Iran 2.Churchill gives his Iron Curtain speech April 14 Stalin promises to be out of Iran by May 1946 Late Spring/Early Summer The USSR begins to isolate themselves (Stalins Industrialization and Collectivization plans)

72 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 72 1946 December 2 nd –The United States, Great Britain, and France merge their German occupation zones to create what would eventually become West Germany The Americans and British agreed at the end of 1946 to fuse the economies of their two occupation zones into a so-called Bizone. (Postwar: A history of Europe Since 1945, Tony Judt)

73 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 73 1947: A Crucial Year in Europe Since wars end, repairs and reconstruction consumed Europeans but: –The fundamental problem of food supply was yet not overcome, caloric intake kept falling (1,500 to 1,050) –Droughts & Poor harvests in eastern Europe impact the western food supply –The winter of 1947 was the worst since 1880, snows melted leading to floods –The summer of 1948 was one of the driest and hottest

74 George F. Kennan d. 2005 State department officer based in Moscow –During and after World War II –Profoundly influenced American foreign policy –Authored the long telegram that analyzed the communist outlook on world affairs –Later published in Foreign Affairs magazine by X ( The Sources of Soviet Conduct - July 1947) –The relationship was one of innate antagonism –The Soviet Union did not have a firm timetable and thus we need: a long-term, patient, but firm and vigilant containment Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 74

75 George F. Kennan d. 2005 Regarded as the intellectual father of containment –The American Cold War strategy of blocking Soviet advances beyond Eastern and Central Europe His ideas were influential in the formation of the Truman Doctrine in 1947, and the strategy of NSC-68 in 1950 He began to distance himself from the practical implementation of his recommendations –He insisted that his ideas were exaggerated and militarized buy U.S. Policy makers Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 75

76 George F. Kennan d. 2005 He left the diplomatic corps in the early 1960s –He began a second career as a scholar criticizing U.S. Cold War policies –When he saw the first draft of Trumans speech in 1947, he was alarmed at the dramatic and emotional language used and the implications to fight communist challenges on a global as opposed to regional Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 76

77 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 77 1947 January –Former General George Marshall replaces James Byrnes as Trumans Secretary of State –The Greek Question is getting hotter The Soviets had complained numerous times to the UN that the Brits were interfering in Greeces sovereignty Greek civil war is raging Soviets Pressing Turkey for access to the straits

78 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 78 1947: Britain Cuts Back Security Commitments February 21 st 1947 –Britain tells the USA that they can NO longer be the guardian of Turkey & Greece March 12 th 1947 (Truman Doctrine Speech) –Truman addresses Congress Stresses growing Cold War tensions in a very dramatic speech Requests $400 million in aid Eventually Stalin decides not to play with Turkey, and warns Tito/Yugoslavia not to start a war over Greece

79 Truman Doctrine: Containment in Action March 12, 1947 Official Title: Trumans Special Message to the Congress on Greece and Turkey Feels the youthful United Nations could not solve the concern It was the first such formal Presidential statement since the Monroe Doctrine It was an unprecedented commitment on the part of the U.S.A….[we] pledged ourselves politically, strategically, and financially to two threatened countries in a region of the world that was not in our hemisphere and outside of a time of a hot war. Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 79

80 Truman Doctrine The president was aware that this action would not be where containment ended Communists in Yugoslavia, Albania, and Bulgaria funded Greek communist led rebels against Royalists & anti-communists Truman held two White House meetings with Congressional leaders, and Acheson helped the president convince the leaders to vote yes Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 80

81 Truman Doctrine It publicly defined and clarified the strategy of CONTAINMENT Bipartisan passage Bill passed both houses by a 3-1 margin The Truman Doctrine is a comprehensive statement of Trumans understanding of the Cold War as a total battle with political, ideological, strategic, military, economic and moral elements Liberal democracy v. Communist Totalitarianism Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 81

82 Truman Doctrine Critics claim the president over exaggerated the Soviets intentions Secretary of Commerce/Journalist Henry A. Wallace of the New Republic continued criticizing the administration for months Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 82

83 Truman Doctrine V. the Marshall Plan The Truman doctrine money was explicitly for political and military reasons The Marshall Plan was mainly for political and economic aid Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 83

84 Alternatives To Containment 1.A Retreat into the traditional pattern of US Isolation From European diplomacy Feb. 21, 1947 Britain acknowledges its exhaustion –Had fought Philip II of Spain –Napoleon I –Kaiser Wilhelm II –Adolf Hitler Tells the U.S.A. they can not afford to police Greece and Turkey Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 84

85 Significance of the Truman Doctrine Breaks the American tradition of isolationism Premise for the Marshall Plan Act of Collective Security (UN) – but issue of aid never brought to the UN Enflames the fear of the spread of Communism Communists in Greece were not supported by Stalin – supported by Yugoslavia –Stalin recognized Britains position in Greece

86 Alternatives To Containment 2. Start a preventative war while the USA still had an atomic monopoly –This would allow the US to establish a Pax Americana (or world empire) –To launch an atomic Pearl Harbor would be contrary to American tradition and universal standards of morality Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 86

87 Alternatives to Containment The bomb signaled a significant change: historically the principal task of military armaments had been to win wars; from now on their main purpose would be to DETER them. Source: American Foreign Policy Since World War II: Hook & Spanier, pp. 43. Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 87

88 Alternatives to Containment Because neither option was feasible the US had to conduct a protracted conflict alien to its style (Hook & Spanier, p. 43) The Cold War that followed was characterized by long-term hostility and by a mutual determination to avoid a cataclysmic military showdown. (Hook & Spanier, p. 44) As it took over Britains role as the keeper of the balance of power, the U.S. had to learn politics. (Hook & Spanier, p. 44). Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 88

89 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 89 1947 April 1947 –Sec. of State Marshall visits Europe –Shocked at devastation, food & fuel shortages

90 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 90 General George Marshall

91 The European Recovery Plan a.k.a. The Marshall Plan [it] marked a pivotal moment in the emergence of the Cold War. The failure on the part of the U.S. to bring the Soviet Union and its satellite states into the recovery program all but made the division of Europe and the Cold War a forgone conclusion (van Dijk, Vol. II, p. 574) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 91

92 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 92 June 5 th, 1947 Sec. of State George Marshall at Harvard announces the European Recovery Plan (ERP) becomes better known as The Marshall Plan –Marshall Plan or European Recovery Program, project was instituted at the Paris Economic Conference (July, 1947) –In Apr., 1948, President Truman signed the act establishing the Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA) to administer the program

93 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 93 European Recovery Plan A.K.A. The Marshall Plan –In Apr., 1948, President Truman signed the act establishing the Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA) to administer the program Available to all nations, even communist Meetings in Paris, Soviets & their Allies walk out Would serve democracy and establish European markets Truman asks for $17 Billion, $13.5 Billion allotted Tito of Yugoslavia gets $151 Million

94 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 94 Marshall Plan: December 1947 Truman requests 17 Billion Congressional debate lasts for weeks, but: –February 1948 Communist Coup in Czechoslovakia Edvard Benes is out and Klement Gottwald is in It was the last democracy in eastern Europe Heightened fears about the stability of Europe –June 24 th, 1948 The Berlin Blockade begins (more information to follow later)

95 Soviet Union Reacts Creation of the Cominform to organize communist parties around the world –Provoke strikes in non-communist nations –Solidify existing communist countries –Unsuccessful and is disbanded in 1956 Comecon (council for Mutual Economic Assistance) –Trade networks made in Eastern Europe –Forced to buy Soviet products –Raw materials sold at high prices to Eastern Europe while their goods were sold back to Russia at low prices (ends in the 1970s)

96 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 96 1947 July –The National Security Act is passed Creates the National Security Council (NSC) Creates the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) –George Kennans- Mr. X article published in Foreign Affairs Magazine (CONTAINMENT) September –Latin American Rio Meeting (19 countries Call for Am. Aid) Next time in Bogota est. OAS –The Molotov Plan is released

97 ADD HERE Add a Note Here about the First successful Airlift over the HUMP for the Chinese Nationalists, p. 35 Daring Young Men Also add a quick note about the leadership of Lucius Clay and the MATs head William Tunner Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 97

98 A Divided Berlin Encyclopedia of the Cold War, Vol. 1 (pp. 82-89) Routledge Press & Daring Young Men (pages as noted) Simon & Schuster (Sources)

99 The Berlin Blockade/Airlift (1948-1949) Operation Vittles v. The War of Erosion Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 99

100 Berlin (overview) Located 100 miles inside of the Soviet Zone (1 of 4 zones) From the Berlin Blockade (1949) until the fall of The Wall (1989) this divided city functioned as the symbolic capital of the Cold War Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 100

101 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 101 Soviet Harassment in the Skies Around Berlin (before the airlift) April 5 th, 1948 A Soviet YAK-3 (fighter plane) collided with a British Viking Airliner, killing all nineteen passengers and crew aboard as well as the Yak pilot (Daring Young Men, Reeves, p.23) The Soviets claim the Airline deliberately Rammed the Yak (Reeves, p. 23)

102 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 102 The Berlin Blockade/Airlift June 24, 1948 – May 12, 1949 (Blockade) June 26, 1948 – September 30, 1949 (Airlift) June 18, 1948 a quarrel over a new W. German currency & and a pending election initiates the quarrel –Communists are rumored to take a beating in the election Soviet Blockade begins June 24, 1948 Airlift (Operation Vittles/ The West v. War of Erosion/ USSR) Begins June 26, 1948 –2.3 million Germans in West Berlin –Eventually Flights land at Tempelhof and Gatow Airports every ninety seconds

103 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 103 Airlift Flights USA 189,963 UK 87,841 France 424 * 586,901 flying hours were flown *Thirty-two Americans Died *Thirty-Nine Brits Died *Nine – 12 Germans Died Items: Coal, Flour,Toothpaste, food, newspapers, medical supplies, steamrollers, equipment for generating electrical power Source: USAFE -Berlin Airlift & Daring Young Men (Reeves)

104 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 104 Number of Passengers Taken in or out of Berlin PassengersInOut USA25,26337,486 UK3,815130,091 France10,000 * –(in & out combined)

105 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 105 Berlin Airlift

106 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 106 B-29 Squadrons The USA also sent three B-29 bomber squadrons (sixty aircraft) to England to stress how determined the Western allies were to resist Soviet pressure. –B-29s were capable of carrying atomic bombs and were within easy reach of the USSR

107 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 107 Berlin Blockade/Airlift: Conclusion (1948-1949) Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 by Tony Judt Like most of Stalins diplomatic adventures the Berlin blockade was an improvisation (p146) He proposed an end in exchange for a postponement of plans for a West German state (p. 146) Of course, the western allies had no intentions of doing this---but did meet!

108 Berlin Blockade/Airlift: Conclusion (1948-1949) Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 by Tony Judt Thus he ended the blockade for a meeting that accomplished nothing –In fact as the meeting was going on (May 23- June 20 th, 1949) the West German Parliamentary Council was establishing a W. German government. Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 108

109 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 109 Berlin Blockade/Airlift: Conclusion (1948-1949) Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 by Tony Judt The new West German constitution was approved on September 21, 1949 Combined the three West German zones into the Federation Republic of Germany –Bonn was selected as the capital –Konrad Adenauer (Christian Democrat) becomes the first Chancellor –Rebuilt with the Marshall Plan, the economy was built along capitalistic lines

110 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 110 Berlin Blockade/Airlift: Conclusion (1948-1949) Stalin later responds by announcing the creation of an East German state formally created on October 7 th, 1949. –The German Democratic Republic was created East Berlin its capital Communist Walter Ulbricht headed its government Remained under STRONG Soviet influence Berlin remained divided into four sectors (3 of which operated as liberal democracies)

111 Berlin Blockade/Airlift: Conclusion (1948-1949) The imposition of the Soviet Blockade did not mean that West Berlin was cut off from all sources of supply other than the airlift (van Dijk, ed. p. 85) –Continue to travel into the Soviet Zone to trade with farmers –The Soviets offered to supply rations (5% said yes….p. 85) The experience of the Airlift helped transform the relationship between West Berliners and the Western powers, from victor and vanquished to friends and allies…this first Western victory in the Cold War depended on Berliners own networks of survival (van Dijk, ed. p. 86) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 111

112 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 112 Significant Outcomes of the Berlin Blockade/Airlift (1948-1949) Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 by Tony Judt 1.It led directly to the creation of two German states, an outcome none of the allies had sought four years earlier (p. 146) 2. [It] committed the United States for the first time to a significant military presence in Europe for the indefinite future (p. 146)

113 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 113 Significant Outcomes of the Berlin Blockade/Airlift (1948-1949) Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 by Tony Judt 3.[It] led directly to a reappraisal of Western military calculations. If the West was going to protect its German clients from Soviet aggression then it would need to give itself the means to do so The Americans had stationed strategic bombers in Britain, these were equipped to carry atomic bombs –The USA had 56 Atomic bombs at this time but we did NOT have a policy of if and when we would use them (p. 146)

114 Uprising in East Germany, 1953 (June 16 th & 17 th ) The First Major Upheaval Behind The Iron Curtain (Ostermann, ed.) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 114

115 Eastern German Crisis – Workers Strike ( 1953 ) This is indicative of how the Cold War would progress: –The superpowers will almost come to blows due to the actions of the local actors throughout the Cold War –After the East/West split each half of Berlin will have their own Mayors and city councils –Subways and suburban rail continued to cross (east- west) sector boundaries until 1959 –Over 50,000 East Berliners worked in W. Berlin –Millions leave the east Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 115

116 East German Crisis (1953) June 17, 1953 –First uprising of the Cold War in the Soviets sphere of influence 3 years before the 1956 Hungarian Revolt East German workers strike East German leaders retreat to the Soviet headquarters Spreads to many other cities Soviet tanks and troops put it down Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 116

117 GIVES THE WEST SIX MONTHS TO GET OUT Khrushchevs Berlin Ultimatum (1958) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 117

118 Khrushchevs Berlin Ultimatum (1958) Khrushchev Tells the Western Allies to leave West Berlin (Nov. 27 th, 1958) –The Berlin Ultimatum: 6 month time-line –The west ignores his request –Crisis will not peak until 1961 when East Germany begins putting up the wall –June 1963: JFK tells the world to Come To Berlin, in order to understand Soviet communism Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 118

119 Khrushchevs Berlin Ultimatum (1958) On paper, Khrushchev calls for transformation of Berlin from a divided city to a free city If the West did not comply, Khrushchev would hand over Berlins sovereign rights to East Germany –Does he really feel the West would stand by and do nothing if all of Berlin goes to the East? (van Dijk, Vol. 1, p.86) Why did Khrushchev take this action? (Really, WHY?) –Perhaps he felt the west was not together as to what to do with Berlin –Perhaps Khrushchev wanted the world to recognize that in his opinion, the USSR was now the worlds second superpower –Perhaps E. Germany pushed Khrushchev into this move –Perhaps he was after surprise and shock Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 119

120 Khrushchevs Berlin Ultimatum (1958) Combined with the Cuban Missile Crisis, some consider these events the high point and even culmination of the Cold War (ibid, p. 89) The alarming situations in Berlin and Cuba touched off a new round in the arms race and reinforced the significance of the two military alliances, NATO and the Warsaw Pact. But the crisis period also established the preconditions for a later détente (ibid, p. 89) Lessons were learned by both sides, and some refer to the crisis as the hour of birth of the new Ostpolitik (ibid, p. 89) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 120

121 Potpourri: Berlin June 1967 The Shah of Iran, Reza Pahlavi visits West Berlin –The Shahs secret police (Savak) joins up with the West Berlin/German police to put down a student protest –Human rights violations in Iran and Vietnam fuels the students frustrations in Germany Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 121

122 The Emergence of NATO Overview

123 Creation of N.A.T.O. Its Development is Aided by the Berlin Blockade/Airlift!

124 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 124 Background to NATO 1947: The French & British signed the Dunkirk Treaty –Committed themselves to mutual support against any future GERMAN aggression 1947 (March 10 th – April 24 th ) –The Moscow Conference of the Foreign Ministers looking for a final agreement on Germany & Austria Allies no longer after a single German admin.

125 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 125 Background to NATO It was the Moscow Conference of 1947…which really rang down the Iron Curtain (Judt, p. 124) –From this point forward the Americans sought economic unification of the western zone of Germany and the encouragement of German self-government –For the Americans especially, Germans were rapidly ceasing to be the enemy. (Judt, p. 125)

126 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 126 Background of NATO January 1948: Prague coup Benes out and the Communist Gottwald was in. THE USA began rethinking our idea of isolationism due to this event (Europe goes on heightened security. It was in this environment that the USA passed the Marshall Plan) March 17 th, 1948: The Brussels Pact was signed: –Great Britain, France, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg form the Western European Union (WEU) For Mutual Military Assistance, the USA is NOT involved. It was a 50 year treaty signed mainly to protect these nations from Germany. Bevin seeks discussions to bring the USA on board.

127 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 127 Background of NATO W. Europe did NOT have a postwar military agreement with the USA –The Marshall Plan primarily focused on economic and political issues –The US had a history of isolationism –Key events in 1948 and 1949 helped Trumans ability to get involved in a Western European military alliance: The Berlin Blockade & Gottwalds communist coup in Czechoslovakia

128 Background to N.A.T.O. Bevin goes to Washington –The Brits, Canadians and Americans meet TEN days after the start of the Berlin Airlift and immediately following the expulsion of Yugoslavia from Cominform –Talks were opened to the other members of the Brussels pact –The French are not happy because the Anglo- American were arranging behind their back (Judt. p.149) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 128

129 Article Eleven of the North Atlantic Treaty Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 129

130 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 130 North Atlantic Treaty Organization April 4 th, 1949 – The treaty is signed! –The Five WEU countries –Iceland –Norway –Denmark –Canada –Portugal –Italy –United States (Senate ratification in July)

131 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 131 NATO & The Americans Article 5: An attack on any one of the member nations would be considered an attack on all –U.S. military assistance in Europe was thus ensured…The treaty was the first peacetime alliance for the United States since its treaty with France in the late eighteenth century (Hanes, p. 38)

132 N.A.T.O. Recognizing the value of US economic aid in the Marshall Plan, Brit Ernest Bevin sought US aid in the defense of the west as well NATO was the primary political and military organization dedicated to collective security for the Western Alliances, led chiefly by the U.S.A. Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 132

133 N.A.T.O. For over forty years it served as a balancing mechanism between: –The Western and the Soviet strategic bloc and; –Prevented large-scale nuclear war (van Dijk, p 646) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 133

134 N.A.T.O. Ironically, NATO witnessed a greater flurry of military activity in the fifteen years after the Cold War than it did during the forty years of the conflict that gave birth to the organization (van Dijk, Vol. II, p. 648) 1994: Peacekeeping mission in the Bosnian War (former Yugoslavia) 1995: Helps bring Serbia to peace talks in Dayton, OH. 1999: Kosovo War (region of Serbia) first ever large- scale military operation Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 134

135 N.A.T.O. 2001: Declares that the September 11 th terrorist attacks could be considered an attack on ALL N.A.T.O. countries –First invocation of Article Five Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 135

136 N.A.T.O. & Article Five Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 136 Even though Article 5 was put into play: NATO member–states responded ambivalently to consequent American strategies for the invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq. American military efforts in the conflicts dwarfed those of the U.S.s NATO allies, suggesting that at the beginning of the twenty-first century the U.S. was still the central partner in the alliance (van Dijk, Vol. II, p. 648).

137 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 137 The Warsaw Pact The Soviets responded to the expansion of NATO by creating the Warsaw Pact in 1955. –Set up a mutual military alliance between the USSR and their Soviet satellite eastern bloc countries, including East Germany (list of countries follows: Note: Titos Yugoslavia is NOT a member)

138 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 138 The Warsaw Pact TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP, CO-OPERATION AND MUTUAL ASSISTANCE' Between the People's Republic of Albania, the People's Republic of Bulgaria, the Hungarian People's Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Polish People's Republic, the Rumanian People's Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the Czechoslovak Republic, May 1, 1955 Source: Modern History Sourcebook –

139 N.A.T.O. For more than fifty years, NATO has proved to be one of the most successful military alliances in history…The eagerness of Eastern European countries to join the organization after the cold war, though, testified to the symbolic success of NATO as more than a military alliance: by the 1990s it was seen as synonymous to the prosperous and powerful West. (van Dijk, Vol. II, p. 648) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 139

140 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 140 Europe 1970

141 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 141 The Cold War Expands To Asia China slowly isolates from the sixteenth century and beyond, especially the 17 th and 18 th 1911: Revolution ends the empire –Arrival of Dr. Sun Yatsen, the Kuomintang (KMT) a.k.a. the Nationalists –KMT 1930s- 1949: Chiang Kai Shek (1887- 1975) is backed by the USA, civil war w/ Mao –Communists 1930s – 1949: Mao Zedong (1893-1976) Agricultural base (peasants)

142 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 142 The Cold War Expands To Asia Japan invades China in 1937 –Mao & Chaing Kai-Shek call for a truce in the civil war –Japan surrenders in August, 1945 ending WW II. The USA ends the occupation in 1952. Chinas Civil War Resumes !

143 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 143 The Cold War Expands To Asia Chiang Kai-shek had a reputation for corruption and oppression U.S. Officials consider Mao a puppet for Stalin –In November of 1945, Truman sends George Marshall to China to work out a settlement between the Nationalist and communist factions, No Go!

144 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 144 The Cold War Expands To Asia The Communists win the civil war –Mao raises the communist flag October 1, 1949, the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) –Chiang flees to Formosa, and renames the island Taiwan, the Republic of China (ROC) US 7 th Fleet protects Taiwan –2/14/1950: PRC & Soviets sign the Sino- Soviet Treaty Soviets loan the Chinese $300 million

145 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 145 Japan After Japans surrender, General Douglas MacArthur was put in charge of Japans political, economic, and social revolution –A new constitution was partially written by the Americans –Japan becomes an important base for American military operations in the West Pacific

146 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 146 Indochina Late 1940s: Communist liberation movement in Vietnam was escalating under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh Indochina includes: –Cambodia, –Laos, –Myanmar –Thailand, and –West Malaysia

147 Nguyen Tat Thanh (a.k.a.) Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) Founded the Indochinese Communist Party in 1930 –Brought Communism to Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos All three became Cold War battlefields –First Indochina War (1946-54) –Second Indochina or Vietnam War ( 1959-1975) Son of an impoverished scholar, who did not hold an official appointment because he did not get along with the French Colonial Adm. (Dijk, Vol. 1 p. 409) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 147

148 Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) 1911 left Vietnam and traveled extensively –Ends up in Paris near the end of WW I In 1919, using the name Nguyen Ai Quoc (Nguyen the Patriot), he presented a petition to the Paris Peace Conference requesting greater political rights, though not complete independence, for Vietnam. This was ignored. (van Dijk, Vol. 1 p. 409) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 148

149 Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) 1920 he joined the Comintern (Communist International) –Became a founding member of the French Communist Party –Went to Moscow in 1923, met Zhou Enlai –Studied at the University of Toilers of the East in Moscow –Delegate at the Fifth Congress of the Comintern, urged more attention for colonial issues Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 149

150 Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) 1924 the Comintern sends him to Canton ( Guangzhou) 1925 founded the Thanh Nien (Youth League) and presided over the founding of the Indochinese Communist Party (just a few members from Laos and Cambodia in the early days) Late 1930: Involved in the Nghe An and Ha Tinh peasant rebellions in north-central Vietnam which was crushed by the French Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 150

151 Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) Arrested, and kept 1931-1933 by the British in Hong Kong Later he received money and supplies from both China and the USSR to help him with his war against America –He accomplished this during the Sino-Soviet split Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 151

152 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 152 Vietnam / Indochina War 1 (1946-54) France back in Vietnam –Resources rubber, and rice –Ho Chi Minh Soviet trained, battles the French –Proclaims the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (1946) Recognized by the Chinese and Soviet government in January 1950 US supports the French French lose the Battle of Dien Bien Phu (1954)

153 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 153 Dien Bien Phu: France Loses! March 13 - May 8, 1954

154 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 154 Dien Bien Phu Dien Bien Phu fell to the Viet Minh on May 7. At least 2,200 members of the French forces died during the siege -- with thousands more taken prisoner. Of the 50,000 or so Vietnamese who besieged the garrison, there were about 23,000 casualties -- including an estimated 8,000 killed

155 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 155 Dien Bien Phu The fall of Dien Bien Phu shocked France and brought an end to French Indochina. Following the French withdrawal, Vietnam was officially divided into a communist North and non-communist South -- setting the stage for U.S. involvement.

156 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 156 Geneva Conference, 1954 The Genera Agreements (Accords) theoretically ended the war between French Union forces and the Vietminh in Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. These states were to become fully independent countries, with the last-named partitioned near the 17th parallel into two states pending reunification through "free elections" to be held by July 20, 1956. The United States and Vietnam are not signatories to these agreements (Containment)

157 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 157 17 th Parallel Ho Chi Minh Trail

158 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 158 A Plan for Security: NSC 68 April 1950: New Foreign Policy –National Security Council Document 68 –Top Secret Report –Massive arms buildup to deal with the Kremlins design for world domination (van Dijk, Vol. 2, p. 650) Containment PLUS a dramatic increase in military funding, including an unwritten rule that includes Keeping up with the Jones –A rise from 14 billion a year to $50 billion a year

159 NSC-68 (April 1950) Viewed as the U.S. blueprint for waging the Cold War, NSC 68s impact was far reaching, affecting not only the Cold War, but other postwar developments as well The impetus for NSC-68 came from two hammer blows that shook the world in the latter half of 1949 Soviet acquisition of the atomic bomb (August), Communist victory in Chinas decades old civil war (Oct.1) (Both quotes from: van Dijk, Vol. 2, p. 650) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 159

160 NSC-68 (April 1950) The authors of NSC 68 used heavy doses of apocalyptic imagery, which remains one of the documents most fascinating aspects –World War II had left two centers of powers in the world ….animated by a new fanatic faith [the Soviet Union] sought to impose its absolute authority over the rest of the world ( van Dijk, Vol. II, p. 651) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 160

161 NSC-68 (April 1950) One historian has characterized NSC 68 as a report that explained why and how the U.S. will fight the Cold War (Walter LaFeber)…it pushed the Cold War to new heights, expanding the conventional and nuclear arms races, solidifying bipolarity, intensifying hostile rhetoric (and the propaganda associated with it on both sides), and all but putting an end to the idea of peaceful coexistence (van Dijk, Vol. II, p. 652) It also committed the United States to meeting the Communist challenge wherever it arose. The consequences would be felt in Korea, Guatemala, Vietnam, and beyond (van Dijk, Vol. II, p. 652) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 161

162 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 162 American Red Scare II (c.a. 1948 – 1955) World events of 1948-1949 caused Americans to be alarmed of a pending world-wide wave of communism –Coup in Czechoslovakia, Berlin Blockade, the Communist Success of Mao in China, communist advances in Indochina –August 29 th, 1949 Soviets successfully test their first atomic bomb Rumors of theft of nuclear secrets fuel the scare

163 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 163 American Red Scare II Americas atomic monopoly is over –America now ponders the development of a stronger bomb based on nuclear fusion The Hydrogen Bomb Truman oks funding by 1950 for the bomb instead of further development of tactical weaponry The Soviets also start development of an H bomb The Arms Race in action !!! We are heading towards Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD)

164 Senator Joe McCarthy 1908-1957

165 Sen. Joe McCarthy (Grand Chute, WI) Seen as the personification of a political witch hunt during the 1950s He feared that American Communists and their sympathizers were involved in treasonous activities in support of the Soviet Union McCarthyism was a term first popularized by the Washington Post cartoonist Herblock McCarthy did not invent anti-communism, he was more of an opportunist (van Dijk, Vol. II, p. 555) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 165

166 Sen. Joe McCarthy (Grand Chute, WI) The controversy around McCarthyism and his witch hunt did highlight the factionalism within the party Although the McCarthy era is commonly depicted as a reign of terror, his period of prominence was relatively brief…he had little to do, however, with the exposure of genuine spies (van Dijk, Vol. II, pp. 555-56) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 166

167 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 167 McCarthyism Fear of the Soviet Union fuels the political pending witch hunt of Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin Took office in 1947, uneventful and ineffective early career, jumps on the anti- communist bandwagon –1950 announces that he has a list of 200 names of people working in and out of the government who were communist or communist sympathizers

168 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 168 McCarthyism His accusations become more outrageous as he gains popularity –Never really put forth any hard evidence –Spreads fear to the mob during an era of anti- Soviet hysteria He even questioned the allegiance of Sec. of State George Marshall in 1951 McCarthyism refers to the suspicion, hostility, and often groundless accusations

169 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 169 McCarthyism Other politicians involved in this hysteria included: –Richard M. Nixon (Future VP, and President) –He also became nationally famous after successfully seeking the conviction of Alger Hiss (a former official of the U.S. State Department)

170 The Korean Conflict

171 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 171 Post WW II: Does the US care about Korea? 1.Early 1950, Sec. of State Dean Acheson commented that Korea lay outside the US perimeter of defense 2.THE US does NOT try to reinstate Chiang Kai-Shek in Mainland China Does this send a message to the Soviets?

172 Korean Conflict Overview One of the most important Cold War battlegrounds Between 1945 –1948 the country was divided and occupied (North= USSR, South=USA) In 1948 it was divided into two separate, mutually antagonistic states (van Dijk, Vol II, p. 516) The actual war occurred between 1950-1953 After the war both the USA and USSR pumped hundreds of millions of dollars into each in order to show off their respective ideologies Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 172

173 Korean War Conflict Overview By the end of the Cold War, South Korea was reaping the benefits of democratization…despite the dictatorial nature of South Koreas military regimes…North Korea, however, has struggled since the Cold War ended. Unable to appeal to China or the Soviet Union on the basis of international socialist solidarity…[it] has become increasingly desperate and has taken provocative measures aimed at getting aid for its deteriorating economy (van Dijk, Vol II, p. 518) Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 173

174 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 174 The Korean War (1950-1953) A surprise invasion of South Korea on June 25, 1950. –Eventually Kim Il Sung received the Soviet Backing, and Chinas troops as backing –The USA went to the United Nations for support The permanent veto of the Soviets was not used because they were in the midst of a UN boycott The UN would not recognize Maos government as the Chinese delegation Originally the US had little interest in Korea

175 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 175 38 th Parallel North under Soviet watch, and South under the USA –The Russians leave a lot of equipment for Kim Il Sung, the US is weary of giving Syngman Rhee too much afraid he will invade the north Elections and UN actions failed to unify the country, so divisions formed: –The Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK) in the North under Kim Il Sung

176 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 176 38 th Parallel The Republic of Korea (ROK) was established in the south led by Syngman Rhee –Rhee had lived in the US for over 30 years –Staunch anti-communist

177 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 177 Korean War (Undeclared War) Korea becomes the first HOT spot during the Cold War –NSC 68 kicked in –Korea becomes a symbolic test of the U.S. policy to confront communist expansion worldwide, rather than in Europe directly –The US did NOT have any Treaty or alliance with Korea that justified a military response to the North Korean invasion –Truman to the UN : 16 Nations involved

178 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 178 Korean (Undeclared) War N. Korea has early advantage, push deep into the south June 27, 1950 Truman authorized the use of US Naval and air forces on behalf of the United Nations in a police action Sept. 15 (post Japanese surrender) MacArthur counterattacks –Amphibious landing at Inchon (outside Seoul, South Korea) –Other UN forces land behind enemy lines, cutting the N. Korean forces in half….quick retreat north of the 38 th parallel

179 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 179 General Douglas MacArthur Drives north to the Chinese border (Yalu River) –China is very annoyed, sends in waves of hundreds of thousands of troops (Nov. 1950) –MacArthur driven back south of the 38 th, asks Truman what about nukes? –Truman fires MacArthur, (April 11, 1951) a highly unpopular move- hes welcomed home as a war hero Ticker-Tape Parade in NYC, and a speech in Congress

180 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 180 Korea 1950-1953 Spring 1951: 38 th parallel is secure –July 1951: Truman talks peace with China –Fall of 1952: American public is tired of the war –By 1952: The Democrats had been in charge of the Presidency since 1933 –Some Republicans favor isolationism want Robert A. Taft (Ohio), but internationalist Republicans call on former General Dwight Ike Eisenhower

181 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 181 Eisenhower Served as supreme commander of Allied Forces in Europe (WW II) Defeats the Democrat Adlai Stevenson in the 1952 election Armistice signed June of 1953 –54,246 Americans and 3.6 million Koreans killed, 1,000,000 Chinese either died or were wounded

182 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 182 Implications of the Korean War Era The Four Point Plan 1.Announced Jan. 1949 (Truman) 2.Approved by Congress June, 1950 (two days after North Koreas initial invasion into south Korea) 3.Abolished by Eisenhower in 1953 4.The Four Point Program Health Care, Farming, Irrigation, and Transportation Goal: To fight the spread of communism in impoverished less developed countries Including: India, Paraguay, Iran, Liberia and later Israel, and Taiwan

183 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 183 Other Implications of the Korean War Era 5. America aggressively signs agreements with Pacific area countries to increase our presence Japan 1951- restoring its sovereignty (occupation ends April 28, 1952) Australia, New Zealand (the ANZUS Pact), and the Philippines 6. U.S. Defense Spending Dramatically Increased 7. Number of U.S. Military Personnel Rose From 1.5 million (1950) to 3.5 million (1954) Number in foreign lands rose from 280,000 to One million

184 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 184 Other Implications of the Korean War Era 8. North Koreas invasion fueled American fears that similar attacks could happen in Europe –The U.S. decides to rearm West Germany & send more troops there 9.The U.S. Congress approved an expansion of NATO Greece in 1951 Turkey in 1952 and West Germany in 1955 10. The U.S. also extended diplomatic relations to Spain (Franco) and Yugoslavia (Tito)

185 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 185 Implications of the Korean War Era 11. Stalin increased his military from 2.8 million (1948) to 5 million (1953) 12.Some claim the Truman-Stalin Era of 1945 – 1953 was THE most intense period of global rivalry, but change is evident: Stalin Dies in March of 1953 Two year struggle: Khrushchev v. Malenkov ensues Dwight Eisenhower is elected in 1952, and seated in 1953 13. The legacy of the Cold War endures in Korea as much as it does anywhere else (van Dijk, Vol. II, p. 518)

186 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 186 Conclusion of the Cold War Origins Red Scare of 1917-1919 –US backs the Mensheviks –Opposite Ideologies Political & Economical –Broken Promises Opening of a New Front in WW II (long Delayed) Free Elections in Eastern Europe (Post WW II) –Ulterior Motives IMF, World Bank, Marshall Plan

187 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 187 Conclusion of the Cold War Origins Geopolitical: The Location of Soviet troops in Eastern Europe in 1944 & 1945 Misunderstanding of each others Goals Fear & Misinterpretation Mistrust –Cutting off Lend Lease in May of 1945 Failure to Communicate Creation of Western Germany, and then NATO Domestic Political Pressures

188 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 188 Bibliography Ambrose, S.E. & Brinkley, D.G., (1993). Rise to globalism: American foreign policy since 1938, 8 th ed.. New York, New York: The Penguin Press. Gaddis, J.L. (2007). The Cold War: A new history. New York, NY: Penguin Books. Hanes, S.M. & Hanes, R.C. (2004). Cold war almanac: Volume 1. Detroit, MI: Thomson Gale. Hanes, S.M. & Hanes, R.C. (2004). Cold war almanac: Volume 2. Detroit, MI: Thomson Gale. Hook, S.W. & Spanier, J. (2007). American foreign policy since World War II. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press. Judt, T (2005). Postwar: A history of Europe since 1945. New York, New York: The Penguin Press.

189 Bibliography Plokhy, S.M. ( 2010). Yalta: The price of peace. New York, NY: Viking. Reeves, R. (2010). Daring young men: The heroism and triumph of the Berlin Airlift, June 1948-May 1949. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. Van Dijk, R. (ed. 2008). Encyclopedia of the Cold War, Volumes I & II, New York, NY: Routledge. Zubock, V. & Pleshakov, C. (1996). Inside the kremlin's cold war: From Stalin to Khrushchev. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 189

190 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 190 Cold War: Almanac (Volumes I & II) by, Sharon M. Hanes and Richard C. Hanes Stretching from the end of World War II to 1989, the Cold War between the Western powers and the Communist bloc shaped national alliances around the world. In 15 chapters, the Almanac treats the historic causes of the tension; the mutual suspicions that fueled the conflict for more than 40 years; the ideological clash between communism and democracy; and the policies that marked the long standoff -- the Marshall Plan, Truman's Point Four program, the nuclear arms race, economic aid, the Berlin Wall, detente; and much more. Also covered are the times when the Cold War burst into armed conflict in such areas as Korea, Cuba and Southeast Asia. Thomson Gale Publishing (2004)

191 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 191 Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 by, Tony Judt World War II may have ended in 1945, but according to historian Tony Judt, the conflict's epilogue lasted for nearly the rest of the century. Calling 1945-1989 "an interim age," Judt examines what happened on each side of the Iron Curtain, with the West nervously inching forward while the East endured the "peace of the prison yard" until the fall of Communism in 1989 signaled their chance to progress. Though he proposes no grand, overarching theory of the postwar period, Judt's massive work covers the broad strokes as well as the fine details of the years 1945 to 2005. No one book (even at nearly a thousand pages) could fully encompass this complex period, but Postwar comes close, and is impressive for its scope, synthesis, clarity, and narrative cohesion. ISBN-13: 9780143037750 (Paper) Pub. Date: September 2006

192 Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 192 Inside the Kremlins Cold War (Vladislav Zubock & Constantine Pleshakov) Zubok and Pleshakov's groundbreaking work reveals how Soviet statesmen conceived and conducted their rivalry with the West within the context of their own domestic and global concerns and aspirations. The authors persuasively demonstrate that the Soviet leaders did not seek a conflict with the United States, yet failed to prevent it or bring it to conclusion. They also document why and how Kremlin policy-makers, cautious and scheming as they were, triggered thegravest crises of the Cold War in Korea, Berlin, and Cuba. Taking us into the corridors of the Kremlin and the minds of its leaders, Zubok and Pleshakov present intimate portraits of the men who made the West fear, to reveal why and how they acted as they did.

193 Berlin Crisis #1- Workers Strike This is indicative of how the Cold War would progress: –The superpowers will almost come to blows due to the actions of the local actors throughout the Cold War –After the East/West split each half of Berlin will have their own Mayors and city councils –Subways and suburban rail continued to cross (east- west) sector boundaries until 1959 –Over 50,000 East Berliners worked in W. Berlin –Millions leave the east Kevin Sacerdote (Content) (Design) 193

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