2Our future Braille readers are depending on you! You Are Important!Our future Braille readers are depending on you!You can nurture or destroy the hope of learning Braille.You can make a DifferenceZolinger, Jan .Teaching Braille Through the Arts, New Mexico School for the Blind 9/23/2010
3How Do you teach Braille? Beginning In preschool, teachers begin conducting the Oregon Project, which assess their Braille readiness skills from ages 3 to 7. These lay the foundation for future braillists. Activities on the preschool level include fine motor skills and tactile discrimination, which is a must to reading and writing braille.
4How Do you teach Braille? Tactile discriminationBegin with identifying the braille symbols are “the same”, and identifying the one that “is different”, etc.Building on Patterns series incorporates the expanded core curriculum and teaches the braille code in a logical sequence“Read Again” “The Braille Connection”, “The ABCS of Braille” – for adventiously blinded students, begins with the alphabet, then and, the, with, of, then on to dot 5, dots 4-5, and so on.
53 Development Levels of Literacy- (1995- Rex, Koenig, Wormsley, Baker) Emergent•Development of concepts•Preschool -Pre-Braille taughtBasic•Experiences during school years•K-12FunctionalExperiences involved in daily lifeJob, filling out job applications, etc.Zolinger, Jan .Teaching Braille Through the Arts, New Mexico School for the Blind 9/23/2010
6How Do you teach Braille? Contracted verses uncontracted brailleIntroduce contractions as they appear in student books and assignments.If the student has a contraction in their name, please teach it to the student using the contraction.Teaching contracted braille as it is introduced in the student’s environment eliminates the reteach of how to write a braille wordcorrectly
7How Do you teach Braille? Make it FUN!!!!!Learning to read braille tactually is tough.Building on Patterns- incorporates the expanded core curriculum and teaches the braille code in a logical sequenceUse braille labels to braille EVERYTHING! Let your students explore the room to find the braille wordsUse technology to motivate- Ipads, JAWS, notetakers, games, get themhooked on a really good book
8Incorporate fun into Braille learning! MusicDramaArtStorytellingMovement
9“Tell me and I will forget. Show me and I will remember. Braille Learning“Tell me and I will forget.Show me and I will remember.Involve me and I will understand.”-Chinese Proverb
10Music- Increases Attention Focus Concentration Releases Tension Improves Short Term MemoryFacilitates a Multisensory Learning ExperienceEstablishes a Positive Learning SituationPowerful carrier of signals that activate emotion and long term memory.Zolinger, Jan .Teaching Braille Through the Arts, New Mexico School for the Blind 9/23/2010
11MusicSelect appropriate music for the learning activity in the classroom:Opening musicBreaks and transitionsBackground music for concentration, quiet activitiesBrainstorming or Creative Problem SolvingEnd of classMusic should not be used than 30% of class.
12The Braille Rap from APH Making Braille is Fun to Do- Favorite Songs:The Braille Rap from APHMaking Braille is Fun to Do-(Hadley School for the Blind)Songs by Jan Zolinger, NMSB
13Braille Methods for Teaching Children Hadley School For the Blind- Free OnlineCourse: Braille Methods for TeachingChildren- 7 lessons, 2 credits earnedLiteracy and Essential Early Experience:The Heart (positive attitude)Head (collection of experiences and skills)Hands (reading techniques)
14Braille Methods for Teaching Children Developing phonological awareness:Teach the alphabet songUse rhymes for alphabet awarenessMake alphabet boxes for each letter of the alphabet. Label each box in print and braille and fill it with items that begin with that letter.
15Braille Methods for Teaching Children Ways to give a child opportunities to feel braille in their environment:Label the child’s toy box and other items with their name in braillePoint out braille in the community, such as public restrooms, restaurants, elevatorsPut braille on the calendarMake large labels on the child’s cereals and snacks.
16Story Boxes/BagsAllows the student to experience their reading of brailleEx: The Foot Book by Dr. Seuss. Include items like slippers, towels, cotton balls, a toy clown, big and small shoes, and show these to the child as you read.Make a library of story boxes for parents to check out to read to their students.
17Braille Methods for Teaching Children Allow a pre-reader to “piggy back” their hands on yours as you read across the braille so that they learn the direction and flow of reading a book. Later, assist them in tracking left to right.Use fun illustrations such as Anne Swenson’s games: “Some children l are playing hide and seek with the bus driver = Then reader then tracks the line to find the bus driver in each row. l l = l ll l l = l
18Braille Methods for Teaching Children In Beginning Readers:Insist the child keeps their fingers on each word as it is readAfter the child has read a book several times, select a random page and read it.Always spell the contractions using the letter names, i.e.: t-h-e contraction, a-n-dKeep a list of contractions the child has mastered
19How do you teach Braille? Have the child practice writing contractions by either rewriting or extending a story, such as “Green Eggs and Ham” . For example, practice the t-h-e contraction with “I do not like Green Eggs and Ham. I will not eat them in the car, I will not eat them in the floor, I will not eat them in the house.”Have the child read back what they have written.Provide many braille books in the classroom and child’s homeEncourage the child to read and reread books frequently to become fluent
20How do you teach Braille? Make Reading MeaningfulUse Calendar ActivitiesMake a daily schedule for the child to followWrite a letter to the child using words they can recognizeDevelop word games and flash cardsPlace letters and words in fun places where the student might find them, such as under the table, to help them explore their environmentsHave games the child can play alone or with others using braille numbers, words, or letters. Uno, Scrabble, Bingo, Braille BattleShip, etc.
22Braille Methods for Teaching Children Braille Reading SpeedMaintain a light touch, constant left to right and downward motion in the direction of the textEncourage the child to use all four fingers of both hands to read braille, (Pencil test)Two-Hand tracking Method.Split-Hands TrackingScissors tracking
23Braille Methods for Teaching Children Beware of Poor Braille Reading Habits:SlouchingScrubbingDouble trackingBacktrackingrereading
24Braille Methods for Teaching Children Factors that Affect Speed:PracticeSilent Reading with Active ListeningUsing “Sight” Words and PhrasesAccess to Braille MaterialsAttitude and Expectations
25Braille Writing Journaling Friendly letters Book reports Task completion verses qualityTeacher feedback and editing is essentialUse it as a way for students to tell their stories
26Braille Methods for Teaching Children Braille Writing“Successful braillewriting depends on the child’s ability to use the correct keys for the dots, the press the keys simultaneously and with enough strength to produce accurate uniform braille characters, and their ability to use the different parts of the machine. Fine Motor exercises are important to gain finger strength.”- Hadley School for the Blind
27Braille Methods for Teaching Children Braille WritingSwing CellBraille ArtSlate and StylusPop A CellBraille Blocks
28Braille Methods for Teaching Children Braille WritingSpelling and VocabularyPrewriting- BrainstormingDrafting/Revising-Publishing- Produce both print and braille copies, using a computer, printer, and embosser.
29Braille Methods for Teaching Children Slate and Stylus ideas:Have students write Valentine’sGrocery ListsTo do listsAddress BookHomeworkShort messages
30Braille Methods for Teaching Children Tactile Illustrations:Learning to interpret tactile illustrations is not comparable to recognizing and identifying visual illustrations.Tactile illustrations must be well madeTo understand illustrations, the child must have sensory experiences with real objects and experiences. Give the blind child opportunities to explore their world.
31Braille Methods for Teaching Children Have students “scan page” with fingers-Top to bottom to get an over all idea of how bigThe image is, its overall features, and thenallow the student to explore the image closer.Tell the student what the image is and explainthe picture so that the student gains aVisual image of the tactile representation.
32Braille Methods for Teaching Children APH basic guidelines for a good tactile design:Textures, shapes, lines, are distinctly different from one anotherAppropriate for the reader’s age and skill levelSimple and show only the most important detailsNot cluttered with fine detailsShapes are no smaller than ½ inch of a sideInclude fill patterns to help the reader tell what is inside and outside the shapeAPH tactile library:
33Ideas for Literacy for Children with Multiple Disabilities :Carefully consider the goals for the child.Label student’s chair, coat hook, and storage area with their nameSelect a key vocabulary with words that are meaningful to them, family names, friends, favorite toys, food, activitiesMake experience books- using real objects and braille labelsUse mnemonics for memory strategiesUse overlearning techniquesTeach context clues
34Ideas for Literacy and Children with Multiple Disabilities Use Tack Tiles to make a story or sentence, as well as invent games to encourage braille reading.Make communication books using symbols and braille wordsModel good reading behaviorExperiment with keyboards and braille notetakersProvide encouragement and motivating activities. Allow the child to feel success with braille
35What is Resource Braille Resource braille provides resources to all braille students to ensure that their educational needs are being met through adequate tools and instruction with regards to braille.Braille resources are also available to teachers to use in their classrooms with braille students.
36What is Resource Braille Instruction? Resource braille is for those students who are struggling in the classroom due to a need of increased fluency and accuracy in the literary braille code and/or Nemeth code.
38IEPs and Transition Plans Braille students need goals for the weaknesses that they show in their braille code, skills, or adaptive technologyIf they will be assigned a adaptive technology, there needs to be a goal or cited on the IEP somewhere.
39What Braille Technology is out there? Perkins BraillerJAWS for WindowsNotetakers- PacMate, BrailleNotes, BrailleSense, APH ProductsRefreshable braille displaysBookreadersJot a DotTons more!
40What does a braille student need to be using? Whatever technology that fits them and their needs the most.It is our job to teach them how to use braille note takers and braille related technology.It is their job to determine if they want to use a braille device or to use a more main stream device to complete technology related tasks.( , websites, completing assignments) that is AFTER they have received training on using braille-specific devices
41Braille Embossers Romeo Juliet BookMaker Index Gemini (print/braille) Tiger premeire pro (graphics)PIAF (pictures in a flash)Braille Basic
42Pros and Cons to Braille Specific Technology Pros: The students can interact with the teachers more readily with screen viewers for the computers.- Quicker feedbackAutomatically transcribes into word perfectBetter writing samplesEasier to assignments to the teacherCan download entire textbooks or books of interest onto a single device.Easier to access the internetEasier to interact with peers during group assignments
43Pros and Cons- Continued Cons: They are computers. With computers, typically things go wrong that require troubleshooting.They take time to learn. I do project; however, that we will continue to progress at ASBVI with teaching these students these devices, therefore reducing some of the anxieties that accompany new devices.They are costly.
44Solutions and Alternatives More training for students and staff on the braille technology.Strategize a plan for paying for these devices on graduation. Lions Clubs, scholarships, small loan.Meet with transition members to determine student needs.
45Braille Programs Braille Pals/Braille Bug- The National Braille ChallengeSeedlings Braille Books for ChildrenNational Library for the BlindLearning Ally (previously Recordings for the Blind and Dyslexic)BookshareAmerican Action Fund
46Braille Statistics What You Should Know Braille is equivalent to print.It is the only system through which children with profound or total loss of sight can learn to read and write.There is a significant relationship between Braille literacy and academic success, higher income and employment.Braille literacy = independence, confidence and success.
47Braille StatisticsToday only 10 percent of blind children are learning Braille.While audio devices are useful sources of information for blind people, only Braille offers complete command of written language.The number of legally blind US children has increased due to several factors, including advances in medical care for premature infants.Most blind children (85%) attend public schools where few teachers know Braille.America would never accept a 10 percent literacy rate among sighted children.
48Braille Statistics (cont) The National Federation of the Blind is initiating a campaign to double the number of Braille readers by 2015.Braille Readers are Leaders is a public awareness campaign to increase support for Braille literacy among blind children and adults.Legislative HistoryWith the passing of Public Law : The Louis Braille Bicentennial-Braille Literacy Commemorative Coin Act, the President of the United States and the U. S. Congress have recognized the critical role Braille plays in the independence, freedom, and success of the blind and the central role the NFB plays in improving literacy among the blind.
50National Certification in Literary Braille Certification (NCLB) The goal of the NCLB, as any other certification process is to:Recognize that a uniform national standard set by professionals in the field has been met.Assure employers, school administrators, colleagues, consumers, families, and other professionals that certificants possess appropriate braille knowledge and skills.Enhance professional credibility.Increase job competitiveness.Contribute to a higher degree of job satisfaction.Provide an opportunity for professional development.Prepare professionals and paraprofessionals to meet current and future needs.Provide essential information necessary for consumers to make informed choices.