2 Aim of the session To introduce the skeletal system To classify bones To introduce the anatomy of a jointTo understand how soft tissue is connected to the skeletal systemTo know the classification of jointsTo know scientific terminology when understanding movement around a joint.
3 Skeletal systemThe body consists of 206 bones…how many of these can you name?
4 The function of the skeletal system ProtectionThe bones protect vital organs such as the brain, heart and lungs.MovementThe skeletal system support the muscles so the body can move.SupportThe skeletal system supports the soft tissue, without it we would be mush.
5 The function of the skeletal system ShapeOur gate and posture is determined by the shape of our skeleton.Making blood cellsLong bones harvest bone marrow, blood cells are made from the blood marrow.
6 Basic anatomy of a boneAll bones begin as cartilage in the womb but gradually turn into bone through a process called OSSIFICATION.Bones have a tough outer layer called the PERIOSTEUM, why do you think this is?Inside the bone mainly consists of SPONGY BONE making the bone light but strong, why is this a good thing?
8 The classification of bones Long bonesFemur, humorous, tibia, fibulaShort bonesCarpals, tarsals, wrist bones, ankle bonesFlat bonesSkull, patellaIrregular bonesVertebrae, pelvis
9 Variations of joints Joints are constructed when two bones meet There are three types of joints you need to know:FIXED, IMMOVABLE JOINTSSLIGHTLY MOVEABLE JOINTSFREELY MOVEABLE JOINTS
10 Fixed jointsCertain joints in the body are not allowed to move due to vulnerability to injury. These joints are evident in anatomical positions that require a lot of protection.TRY AND THINK OF AN IMMOVABLE JOINT?
11 Slightly moveable joints These joints are allowed to move, but only to a certain degree.Each of the bones rest on a cushion of cartilage.The sections of the bone are allowed to move but are restricted by ligaments.TRY ANE THINK WHERE YOU MIGHT SEE A SLIGHTLY MOVEABLE JOINT IN THE BODY?
12 Freely movable jointsThese joints are totally moveable, they have very little restrictions and a high Range Of Motion around joints.Sometimes called synovial joints because they contain a synovial fluid inside a pocket called the synovial membrane.The synovial membrane lubricates the joint minimising friction.TRY AND THINK OF TWO FREELY MOVEABLE JOINTS?
13 Classification of joints Ball and socket jointLocated in the hip and shoulderThe joint can move in all directionsHinge jointLocated in the elbow and kneeThe joint can move backwards and forwards, but not side to sideCondyloid jointLocated in the wristCan move forward, backward, side to side, but not rotation
14 Classification of joints Pivot jointLocated in the superior section of the spine.The joint only allows rotation.Gliding jointLocated in the tarsels and carpels.Joint can move in all directions.
15 Classification of joint movement ExtensionFlexionAbductionAdductionRotation
19 Connective tissue Cartilage Ligaments Tendons Found at the end of bones, stops bones rubbing togetherLigamentsConnects bone to bone supporting jointsTendonsAttaches to the skeletal system allowing the limb to move through the sliding filament theory
20 Warm-up questions How many bones are there in the human body? What are the functions of the skeletal system?What is the anatomical name for the thigh bone?In joints, what is the name of the cushioning pad to stop friction?What movement does a hinge joint allow?What are the classifications of bones?
21 Extended readingGCSE Physical education; complete revision and practice.