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Why are leading actors matched w. costars 1/2 their age?

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Presentation on theme: "Why are leading actors matched w. costars 1/2 their age?"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Why are leading actors matched w. costars 1/2 their age?

3 Best Actor/Actress 2008: Sean Penn - 47 Kate Winslet - 32

4 Best Actor/Actress 2007: Daniel Day Lewis - 49 Marion Cotillard - 31

5 Romantic movies: Eternal Sunshine Jim Carey - 41; Kate Winslet - 28

6 Romantic movies: Gone with the Wind Clark Gable - 37; Vivien Leigh - 25

7 Casa Blanca Bogart - 43; Ingrid Bergman - 24

8 Academy Awards Mean age of best actress - 34 Mean age of best actor - 43

9 Hypothesis: People magazine speculates: Hollywood directors (often older males) trying to relive their youth Implies something special about Hollywood, but

10 TROPHY WIFE SYNDROME Phoenix Gazette: Growing trend among powerful chief executives..discarding long-standing spouses for trophy wives – women typically younger …beautiful and very often accomplished. Phoenix Gazette: Growing trend among powerful chief executives..discarding long-standing spouses for trophy wives – women typically younger …beautiful and very often accomplished.

11 -20 10s s s30s40s50s60s s30s40s50s60s MALE'S AGE FEMALE'S AGE DIFFERENCE FROM CEO'S AGE CEO'S AGE From Fortune magazine Female CEOs husbands 4.5 yrs. older Male CEOs wives progressively younger

12 Sociologist Arthur Neal (quoted in Gazette): Our cultural image of a mature man is typically in his late 40s or 50s…successful in his career. …ideal female - 20s or early 30s …This should come as no surprise at all, we live in an advertising culture...

13 Hypothesis: Phenomenon attributable to our culture Implies something special about American society

14 How do experts come up with their opinions on topics like this? What kinds of evidence do we need to determine whether those opinions are right or wrong?

15 Sociocultural Evolutionary Social Learning Social Learning Social Learning Social Learning Social Cognitive Social Cognitive Social Cognitive Social Cognitive Major Theoretical Perspectives

16 Sociocultural Perspective What drives social behavior? Forces in larger social groups such as: norms within cultural groups social class differences nationality/ethnicity fads

17 Young Tibetan Bride (on right) with 3 of 5 brothers she married Sociocultural theorists might ask: What are the differences in social behavior across cultures?What are the differences in social behavior across cultures? For example, women in some societies marry more than one man (polyandry)For example, women in some societies marry more than one man (polyandry)

18 Norms about racism have varied across historical periods In parts of the United States during the 1950s, anti-black prejudice was expressed openlyIn parts of the United States during the 1950s, anti-black prejudice was expressed openly

19 Social norms: rules and expectations for appropriate social behavior. Sociocultural Perspective Culture: beliefs, customs, habits, and language shared by the people living in a particular time and place.

20 American culture teaches children to cherish their own individual choice and independence Culture, Choice, and Intrinsic Motivation esearch

21 Culture, Choice, and Intrinsic Motivation esearch But Asian culture emphasizes more collective values – viewing the self as interdependent with family and social group.

22 In one study, researchers asked Anglo- American and Asian-American children to solve word puzzles that were either: Chosen by the child (Personal Choice) Chosen by the experimenter Chosen by the childs mom Culture, Choice, and Intrinsic Motivation esearch

23 Personal Choice Iyengar & Lepper, 1999esearch Experimenter Choice But Asian-American children were more motivated when their mothers had chosen the task Number of Word Puzzles Completed Anglo American Personal choice boosted motivation for Anglo- American children Asian American Mom Choice

24 Cultural Norms & Romance Japanese - 1st kiss age 20 Americans - heavy 16 Aussie women want 4 sexual partners, Asian women less than 2

25 Cultural Norms & Romance Cultural norms can influence romantic behaviors But do they explain trophy wife syndrome?

26 Evolutionary Perspective What drives social behavior? Genetic predispositions to respond in adaptive ways to particular events in the environment.

27 Evolutionary Perspective Such as: Tendency to quickly detect an angry face 580 msec if its a woman, 540 msec if its a man,

28 Evolutionary theorists might ask: Are there similarities in social behavior across species? Evolutionary theorists might ask: Are there similarities in social behavior across species?

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30 Female birds mate polygynously when male territories are highly variable; Only a small %age of males mate w. > than 1 female Female birds mate polygynously when male territories are highly variable; Only a small %age of males mate w. > than 1 female

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32 Evolutionary theorists might also ask: What are the similarities across cultures? Evolutionary theorists might also ask: What are the similarities across cultures?

33 -20 10s s s30s40s50s60s s30s40s50s60s MALE'S AGE FEMALE'S AGE DIFFERENCE FROM TARGET'S AGE TARGET'S AGE Oldest preferred Youngest preferred Kenrick, Gabrielidis, Keefe, & Cornelius, Child Development (1996). Kenrick & Keefe, Behavioral & Brain Sciences, (1992).

34 EVOLUTIONARY LIFE HISTORY MODEL: All Men interested in women in years of peak fertility. For old men = younger. For young men = older. EVOLUTIONARY LIFE HISTORY MODEL: All Men interested in women in years of peak fertility. For old men = younger. For young men = older. WHAT UNDERLIES TROPHY WIFE SYNDROME? WHAT UNDERLIES TROPHY WIFE SYNDROME?

35 IF CULTURE -- SHOULD VARY WITH SOCIETY AND HISTORICAL CHANGE. IF HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE LIFE SPAN -- CONSISTENT ACROSS CULTURES. IF CULTURE -- SHOULD VARY WITH SOCIETY AND HISTORICAL CHANGE. IF HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE LIFE SPAN -- CONSISTENT ACROSS CULTURES. HOW TO DISTINGUISH EVOLUTIONARY vs CULTURAL EXPLANATIONS?

36 -20 10s s s30s40s> s30s40s>50 MALE'S AGE FEMALE'S AGE DIFFERENCE FROM TARGET'S AGE TARGET'S AGE Netherlands Kenrick & Keefe, Behavioral & Brain Sciences, (1992).

37 (TIMES OF INDIA, BOMBAY, SUNDAY, JAN. 29, 1989): WANTED: A NON-BHARADWAJ SMART GOOD-LOOKING PREFERABLY EMPLOYED KERALA IYER GIRL BELOW 25 FOR A KERALA IYER BOY 29. CHEMICAL ENGINEER. CONTACT WITH HOROSCOPE.

38 s30s40s50s s30s40s50s MALE'S AGE FEMALE'S AGE DIFFERENCE FROM TARGET'S AGE TARGET'S AGE India Kenrick & Keefe, Behavioral & Brain Sciences, (1992).

39 -20 10s s s30s40s> s30s40s>50 MALE'S AGE FEMALE'S AGE DIFFERENCE FROM TARGET'S AGE TARGET'S AGE Poro Kenrick & Keefe, Behavioral & Brain Sciences, (1992).

40 1st wife - Catherine of Aragon Henry - 17, Catherine - early 20s Last wife, when Henry 51, was 20 years younger. Henry b st wife - Catherine of Aragon Henry - 17, Catherine - early 20s Last wife, when Henry 51, was 20 years younger. Henry b HENRY VIII

41 90 yrs. old, this is his 21st, with 4th wife. Worldss oldest father, Aug. 20, 2007

42 -20 10s s s30s40s> s30s40s>50 MALE'S AGE FEMALE'S AGE DIFFERENCE FROM TARGET'S AGE TARGET'S AGE1600s 1700s Kenrick, Nieuweboer & Buunk (unpublished)1800s 1980s ads Netherlands N=2 N=8

43 Widows with farms would marry younger men; The women got needed assistance; Men elevated their position in society Widows with farms would marry younger men; The women got needed assistance; Men elevated their position in society One possible explanation:

44 Tiwi of North Australia

45 But society is polygynous Powerful older men monopolize all young brides All women must marry Powerful men betroth young daughters to other patriarchs But society is polygynous Powerful older men monopolize all young brides All women must marry Powerful men betroth young daughters to other patriarchs Tiwi men actually place very high value on young wives

46 To get a start in life as a household head and thus to get his foot on the first rung of the prestige ladder, a Tiwi man in his thirties had first of all to get himself married to an elderly widow, preferably one with married daughters …The widow did several things for him. She became his food provider and housekeeper. She served as a link to ally him with her sons. As her husband, he acquired some rights in the future remarriages of her daughters when they became widowed. (Hart & Pillig, 1960, p. 25) To get a start in life as a household head and thus to get his foot on the first rung of the prestige ladder, a Tiwi man in his thirties had first of all to get himself married to an elderly widow, preferably one with married daughters …The widow did several things for him. She became his food provider and housekeeper. She served as a link to ally him with her sons. As her husband, he acquired some rights in the future remarriages of her daughters when they became widowed. (Hart & Pillig, 1960, p. 25)

47 Trophy wifes in light of data: Attraction to younger trophy wives not something unique to CEOs, ie to people exposed to American advertisements, Not a result of cultural influences Instead, probably linked to life span differences in fertility Trophy wifes in light of data: Attraction to younger trophy wives not something unique to CEOs, ie to people exposed to American advertisements, Not a result of cultural influences Instead, probably linked to life span differences in fertility

48 Natural Selection Animals with features suited to demands of environment will survive better than those with less well-adapted features. Those well-adapted animals will reproduce more successfully.

49 Kin Selection Animals are predisposed to help those who share genes by common descent Nepotism

50 Inclusive Fitness Fitness formerly defined by number of surviving offspring But some animals do not reproduce (e.g. most female bees & ants)

51 Inclusive Fitness Can enhance fitness by contributing to survival of kin Inclusive = surviving genes in offspring + relatives you helped White-fronted bee-eater

52 On a 100 point scale (with 100 being warmest), how do you feel towards: Fathers father Fathers mother Mothers father Mothers mother

53 Paternal Latham et al., 2005esearch Maternal Researchers attributed this to paternal uncertainty Feeling Thermo- meter Grandfather Students felt least close to fathers father Grandmother

54 Parental Investment Theory Sex contributing more resources to offspring (usually female) – more selective in mate choice. Other sex (usually males) – compete amongst themselves for access to more selective partners. Evolutionary Perspective

55 Whats minimum percentile of intelligence youd accept in considering someone for: DATE SEXUAL PARTNER 1 NIGHT STAND STEADY DATING PARTNER MARRIAGE PARTNER Whats minimum percentile of intelligence youd accept in considering someone for: DATE SEXUAL PARTNER 1 NIGHT STAND STEADY DATING PARTNER MARRIAGE PARTNER Kenrick, Sadalla, Groth, & Trost (1990) Journal of Personality Kenrick, Groth, Trost & Sadalla (1993) J. Personality & Social Psychology Evolutionary Perspective

56 DATESEXMARRIAGE STEADY 50th%ile Minimum Intelligence Desired Evolutionary Perspective

57 DATESEX STEADY MARRIAGE 50th%ile

58 DATESEX STEADY MARRIAGE 50th%ile

59 Excuse me, Ive seen you around campus, and I find you attractive. Would you like to go out with me? Excuse me, Ive seen you around campus, and I find you attractive. Would you like to go up to my room? Excuse me, Ive seen you around campus, and I find you attractive. Would you like to go to bed with me? Clark & Hatfield (1989) Evolutionary Perspective

60 Male Female SUBJECT SEX GO OUT GO TO APT. GO TO BED PERCENT SAYING "YES" 100 Clark and Hatfield (1989)

61 Sexual Selection Animals with features that promote reproduction by Attracting opposite sex Dominating same sex will reproduce more successfully. Evolutionary Perspective

62 Males EVER CONSIDERED KILLING ANOTHER Females Never FrequentlyOccasionally Kenrick & Sheets (1994). Homicidal Fantasies. Ethology & Sociobiology, 14,

63 Phalarope females larger & more competitive / males. Why? Evolutionary Perspective

64 Species like phalaropes exception that proves the rule: Sex making higher investment (usu. but not always females)-- more selective Other sex competes for mating opportunities. Evolutionary Perspective

65 Social Learning Perspective What drives social behavior? Classically conditioned preferences such as Feeling of fear at sight of person who hit you Social Learning Perspective What drives social behavior? Classically conditioned preferences such as Feeling of fear at sight of person who hit you

66 (Operant conditioning) Habits rewarded by other people such as Boy who fights frequently after father praised him for winning fight w. neighborhood bully. Social Learning Perspective What drives social behavior? Social Learning Perspective What drives social behavior?

67 Social Learning Perspective What drives social behavior? Social Learning Perspective What drives social behavior? Observation of models rewarded. such as Buying gun after seeing movie in which hero gets girl after shooting several dozen people.

68 Space Blaster Doomsday Version 2.5 Does playing violent video games increase aggressiveness?

69 Learning Violence From Video Games One team of researchers hypothesized - violent video games may make aggression rewarding, by allowing person to win points for killing & maiming human-like opponents (Anderson & Dill, 2000) esearch

70 In experiment, students 1st played violent video game (Wulfenstein) or nonviolent game (Tetrix) They played a competitive game in which they could retaliate against real opponents by delivering unpleasantly loud blasts of noise esearch Learning Violence From Video Games

71 85 80 Nonviolent Anderson & Dill, 2000esearch Violent Retaliatory Aggression (unpleasant noise level) Students who played a violent video game demonstrated significantly higher levels of retaliatory aggression Type of Videogame

72 What drives social behavior? What we pay attention to How we interpret and judge social situations What we retrieve from memory What drives social behavior? What we pay attention to How we interpret and judge social situations What we retrieve from memory Social Cognitive Perspective

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74 25 Control Estimated % Highly Attractive Attention-Limited Male Targets Female Targets

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79 0 0 Male Ps Female Ps Male Targets Female Targets % time on attr photos

80 Recognition Memory Participants shown single photos Male vs. Female Attractive vs. Average Later shown old photos Plus new ones not shown before Participants shown single photos Male vs. Female Attractive vs. Average Later shown old photos Plus new ones not shown before

81 Male Participants Average Attractive Male Targets Female Targets Recognition

82 Female Participants Male Targets Female Targets Attractive Females did not selectively remember the attractive men Average Recognition

83 Both sexes are biased to look at attractive people Women attend to, but do not seem to remember attractive men Men & women attend to, remember, & overestimate attractive women Women attend to, but do not seem to remember attractive men Men & women attend to, remember, & overestimate attractive women Attention and Memory

84 Biased Interpretation Participants shown single photos Male vs. Female Attractive vs. Average Black vs. White All posed & pre-rated for neutral expressions Participants shown single photos Male vs. Female Attractive vs. Average Black vs. White All posed & pre-rated for neutral expressions

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87 Told people in photos previously thinking emotional thoughts Task --> read face for subtle emotional cues Before seeing photos Participants watched one of 3 films Told people in photos previously thinking emotional thoughts Task --> read face for subtle emotional cues Before seeing photos Participants watched one of 3 films

88 Self-protection

89 Romance

90 Control

91 Perceived Anger in Black Male Targets Control Self-protection

92 Perceived Sexual Arousal in Attractive Opposite Sex Targets Perceived Sexual Arousal in Attractive Opposite Sex Targets Control Romantic Male Participants Female Participants

93 SOCIAL COGNITION Interpretation of sexual arousal biased in line w. parental investment theory Only men project sexual feelings, - specifically onto attractive women Female & male Ps both felt romantic feelings after film But female judgments of strangers unaffected Only men project sexual feelings, - specifically onto attractive women Female & male Ps both felt romantic feelings after film But female judgments of strangers unaffected

94 Sociocultural Perspective Evolutionary What Drives Social Behavior? Social Learning Social Cognitive

95 Forces in larger social groups e.g.: norms, fads, social class, ethnic identity, Sociocultural Perspective Evolutionary What Drives Social Behavior? Social Learning Social Cognitive

96 Genetic predispositions / promoted ancestors survival & reproduction, such as: bond betw. parent & child Sociocultural Perspective Evolutionary What Drives Social Behavior? Social Learning Social Cognitive

97 Classically conditioned preferences Habits Imitation Classically conditioned preferences Habits rewarded by others; Imitation of behavior weve seen rewarded in others Sociocultural Perspective Evolutionary What Drives Social Behavior? Social Learning Social Cognitive

98 pay attention interpretjudge memory What we pay attention to; How we interpret & judge social sits.; What we retrieve from memory Sociocultural Perspective Evolutionary What Drives Social Behavior? Social Learning Social Cognitive Social Cognitive

99 Theories not independent alternatives Social behavior NOT caused EITHER by culture, evolved mechanisms, learning, OR cognition All these factors INTERACT Social behavior NOT caused EITHER by culture, evolved mechanisms, learning, OR cognition All these factors INTERACT

100 Basic Principles of Social Behavior Social behavior is goal oriented. Continual interaction betw. person & situation. Social behavior is goal oriented. Continual interaction betw. person & situation.

101 At surface level, we have many day-to-day goals. –Go Shopping –Study for a test –Get a date for Saturday night. –Etc. At surface level, we have many day-to-day goals. –Go Shopping –Study for a test –Get a date for Saturday night. –Etc. Social Behavior is Goal Oriented

102 At broadest level, we can categorize social goals into fundamental motives- To establish social ties To understand ourselves and others To gain and maintain status To defend ourselves and those we value To attract and retain mates

103 Person - Situation Interactions By person psychologists mean characteristics individuals carry into social situations By situation - environmental events or circumstances outside person Interaction - persons & situations influence one another in # ways

104 1. Different persons respond differently to the same situation The Interaction Between the Person and the Situation Example: Some people perceive friendliness as flirtation; others perceive flirtation as friendliness.

105 2. Situations Choose the Person The Interaction Between the Person and the Situation Not everyone gets to enter every situation they would like. Example: West Point doesnt admit all. Dominant, agreeable men more likely chosen for relationships over submissive, disagreeable ones. Not everyone gets to enter every situation they would like. Example: West Point doesnt admit all. Dominant, agreeable men more likely chosen for relationships over submissive, disagreeable ones.

106 3. Persons Choose Their Situations The Interaction Between the Person and the Situation Example: One person would pay dearly to go bungee-jumping; another would pay dearly to avoid. Men, elderly, & high self-esteem people less likely to seek out help. Example: One person would pay dearly to go bungee-jumping; another would pay dearly to avoid. Men, elderly, & high self-esteem people less likely to seek out help.

107 4. Different Situations Prime Different Parts of the same Person The Interaction Between the Person and the Situation Example: Around your professor, you may show your intellectual side; Around an old friend who did not go to college; you may suppress it.

108 5. Persons Change The Situation The Interaction Between the Person and the Situation Example: A highly extraverted person can change a boring party into the social event of the season.

109 6. Situations Change the Person The Interaction Between the Person and the Situation Example: After four years of college, any proclivity to get in fist fights will likely decrease.


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