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Interpersonal Attraction

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Presentation on theme: "Interpersonal Attraction"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7: The Path to Commitment: Attraction, Dating, Partnering, and Cohabitation

2 Interpersonal Attraction
The Evolutionary Theory Sexual selection Members of one sex compete among themselves for opportunities to mate One person chooses to mate with a specific person Some are more preferable than others

3 Interpersonal Attraction
The Right Stuff: What Men Want Men are concerned with quantity according to evolutionists Men select women who possess fertility cues Physical attractiveness Certain physiological features important

4 Interpersonal Attraction
Reproductive Promise: Youth Youth equals attractiveness and beauty Nip and tuck Surgical and non-surgical procedures on women and men increased dramatically

5 Interpersonal Attraction
Reproductive Promise: The Language of Curves Puberty signals changes in body shape for males and females Waist-to-hip ratio contributes to attractiveness Means woman is capable of reproducing

6 Interpersonal Attraction
The Right Stuff: What Women Want Sexual selection – women more selective than men Concerned with the quality of children Look for positive genetic traits and characteristics

7 Interpersonal Attraction
Provider/Protector Cues Women want man who: Can provide and protect Is willing to provide and protect Attraction based on protector/provider cues

8 Interpersonal Attraction
Women seek men who are culturally successful Display dominant behaviors Ambition- determination and motivation Industry- hard work, diligence, productivity Good financial prospects- ability for economic gain

9 Social Exchange Theory
Key Concepts All behavior is a series of varying exchanges All individuals seek to maximize their rewards and minimize their costs When rewards are received, the benefactor feels obligated to reciprocate Rewards minus costs equal the outcome of the interpersonal exchange

10 Figure 7.1: The Filter Theory of Mate Selection

11 Filter Theory of Mate Selection
Individuals use a filtering mechanism to sort out a potential mate from the pool of candidates Filters Propinquity: geographic closeness Homogamy: someone who is similar to you Exogamy – outside a particular group Endogamy – inside a certain group Heterogamy – partners of different races

12 Filter Theory of Mate Selection
Physical attractiveness filter – individuals are attracted to those who are at least as attractive as they are Balance sheet filter – refers to reciprocity look for someone who can offer us something others cannot

13 Dating Purposes of dating
Socialization: dating provides time for interaction Recreation: provides time to enjoy each other’s company and have fun Mate selection: provides opportunity to compare and contrast personality traits of different people

14 Table 7.1: Scripted Events for a Typical Date

15 Table 7.2: Scripts for Hypothetical and Actual First Dates for Gay Men and Lesbians

16 Dating in the 21st Century
Speed dating - Allows people to meet each other face to face and if they are interested, then they can arrange for a more extended date Internet Dating – internet chat rooms are replacing bars as a meeting place for available singles

17 Figure 7.3: Sexual Acts in College Hookups

18 Dating in the 21st Century
“Hookin’ up” – physical interactions without absence or commitment or affection, gaining popularity on college campuses “Friends with benefits” or “booty call” – people who have regular sex but do not relate as a couple

19 Figure 7.2: Dating–Related Activities Online

20 Figure 7.3: Sexual Acts in College Hookups

21 Knapp’s Relationship Escalation Model
Initiation – couples present their public selves, observe the traits of the other person Experimenting/exploration – information gathering stage Intensification – formal interactions give way to less formal, more spontaneous conversation

22 Knapp’s Relationship Escalation Model
Integrating – become a couple and are identified as a couple Bonding/intimacy – couple reaches a shared level of interdependence

23 Duck’s Relationship Filtering Model
Sociological or incidental cue – a person’s location or position Pre-interaction cue – at a glance information helps to decide if they would want to date a person Interaction cues – make assessments about whether they want to get to know someone better

24 Duck’s Relationship Filtering Model
Cognitive cues – when we decide to spend more time with someone, these cues tell us more about a person than just superficial information

25 Commitment Commitment is the result of 3 factors:
Growing satisfaction with each other’s ability to meet and gratify important needs Decreasing reliance on friends and family to meet needs that the couple provides for each other Increasing investments in the relationship such as time, material resources and emotional/personal investment

26 Commitment A long term orientation 3 types of commitment:
Personal commitment: feeling, thoughts, beliefs about a life mate Moral commitment: a person’s value and belief system Structural commitment: commitments bound by institutions such as marriage

27 Table 7.3: Distress/Protest Reactions to Breaking Up

28 Cohabitation The living arrangements of unmarried, intimate partners
Rates of cohabitation vary by Regions Religion Age Race Social class Educational attainment

29 Figure 7.4: Percentages of Persons of the Opposite Sex sharing Living Quarters across regions of the United States

30 Figure 7.5: Living Together without Getting Married

31 Figure 7.6: Rates of Cohabitation by Race

32 Figure 7.7: Percentage of Parents Who were Married or Cohabitating at the Birth of Their First Child, by Race/Ethnicity and Sex

33 Does Cohabitation Work?
Relationship dissatisfaction and marital failure – cohabitation before marriage correlated with high relationship dissatisfaction and higher risk of divorce Relationship Violence – cohabitation before marriage has an increased risk of violence against women and children

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