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© West Educational Publishing Sociocultural Influences and Relationships C HAPTER 19 T his chapter focuses on social and cultural factors that guide our feelings toward one another. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Attribution Theory Attribution theory explains how we form opinions of others. C ONSEQUENCES “things that follow” A TTRIBUTION “to give to” A NTECEDENTS “things that come before” Information beliefs, and motivations we already have Explanations of why people act as they do Our thoughts, our emotional responses, and expectations EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Interpersonal Attraction Ingredients in Liking and Loving Flirting such as glancing at a person, smiling, nodding, primping, playing with one’s hair, etc. The person who is physically attractive is seen as trustworthy, confident, and competent. People tend to select people who are as attractive as they are. Over time, the importance of looks decreases. Self-disclosure is good to a degree but too much is boring to another person. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Marriage Counselors say that…. 1. Marrying someone who has a drug or alcohol problem and trying to reform that person is almost never a good idea. 2. Jealousy is never a good idea. 3. Any violence in a relationship is a bad sign. It rarely goes away. 4. Love means giving and taking. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Aggression and Violence Influence of the Brain People interpret similar situations as peaceful or violent, depending on their prior experience. Culture and Aggression America is a very violent country. (The murder rate is 7-10 times higher than in Europe.) This may be due to the emphasis people place on individual rights, freedom, and competition. Between the ages of 15-24, homicide is the second highest cause of death (following accidents). EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Social Factors in Aggression Aggressive patterns are set by middle childhood. Some males are conditioned to be “masculine” because their aggressive behavior is condoned through adolescence. Deindividuation (a loss of identity as a result of being in a group) increases violent acts. In a group, individuals feel less responsibility, more power, and less vulnerability. This is called the risky-shift phenomenon. This may lead to events such as mob action, gang beatings and riots. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Biological Factors in Aggression The part of the brain called the hypothalamus is responsible for rage, anger, and pleasure. Taking drugs (e.g. amphetamines) can increase the firing of neurons, causing the person to feel confused and threatened. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Seeing violence in films and television does not allow people to release aggressive tendencies. It is not cathartic. Effects of Mass Media Most psychologists now believe that violence in films can increase violent behavior in people (imitation learning). Violent behavior increases if people believe that violence is justified or acceptable. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Witnessing Real-Life Violence Exposure to violence leads to anxiety, sleep problems, nightmares, and withdrawal. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Helping Behavior When more people are present, people feel less personal responsibility to help others. 1. When others are present people do not want to appear foolish. 2. People use others viewing the crisis as a measuring stick about how to act and behave. 3. Diffusion of responsibility means that a person feels less responsibility in a group. 4. People do not call for police because that would signal an emergency, which would require more help than the person is willing to give. 5. People will not help in a strange environment. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Environmental Influences on Behavior Territoriality (protecting a specific area) occurs in some animal species. Humans seemingly exhibit a similar behavior. It is called personal space. Personal space in America is about two feet. If people come closer than that, a person may feel threatened and uncomfortable. Males tend to want a larger personal space than do females. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Overcrowding in animals causes them to become defensive. Some will kill; they may fail to breed; they may develop brain defects; and many die of the stress of the situation. Density is the actual number of people per square foot, while crowding is the feeling of being too close. Environmental Influences on Behavior (continued) EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Summary of Main Topics Covered Interpersonal Attraction Marriage Aggression and Violence Helping Behavior Environmental Influences on Behavior Attribution Theory EXIT
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Warm-up: PSA - VideoVideo What should a person do if he or she is contemplating suicide because of bullying or other forms of abuse ? © 2016 NorthsideISD.
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© West Educational Publishing Sociocultural Influences: Attitudes and Beliefs C HAPTER 20 M any of our attitudes and beliefs are based on the behaviors.
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