2Theoretical Background Parental Investment TheoryFemales are a valuable reproductive assetGametesPregnancyLactationNurturingHow is sex more risky for women?Is this still true today?
3Predictions From Parental Investment Theory The more investing sex (females) will be more selective about mating than the less investing sexThe less investing sex (males) will be more competitive for sexual access to the high investing sex (females).
4Problems Women FaceSelecting men who possess attributes that confer benefitsAvoiding men who possess liabilitiesDetecting deception in potential matesIntegrating various inputs into a weighted decision about whether to accept or reject a potential mate
5What Women Want in a Long term Mate: Resources Resources- is he willing and able to invest?Financial prospectsStatusAgeAmbitionDependable and stable
9Love and Commitment Expressions of commitment Fidelity Resource sharingEmotional support
10Willingness to Invest in Children Men’s desire for sexual variety may lead them to channel resources elsewhereMen withhold investment when they are less sure of paternityWomen prefer long term partnerswho show interest in childrenWomen can detect men’s interest inchildren by looking at their faces
11Brief Summary- What do Women Want? Character traitsSignal ability and willingness to investSignal ability to protectSignal long-term cooperationHealthSymmetry and masculinity may be cues to healthLooks less important than character in long-term mates
12Similarity Long-term relationships require long term cooperation Similarity is important inValuesPolitical orientationWorldviewIntelligencePersonality
13Humor, Incest Avoidance, and Voice Why do women like men who make them laugh?Incest avoidance: both men and womenVoice: women prefer deeper voices, but more for short-term mating
14More successful women place a higher premium on resources Context Effects on Mating Preferences: What About Women who Have Plenty of Resources Already?Structural powerlessness hypothesis: Do women prefer resources simply because women lack powerEven in societies where women have power and resources, they still expect it from menMore successful women place a higher premium on resources
15Menstrual Cycle Effects Masculine features preferred more at fertile phaseSymmetry preferred more during fertile phaseWomen change dress and behavior during fertile phaseStripper study: strippers earn more tips during fertile phase
16What About The Woman’s Mate Value? Women who perceive themselves to be more attractive are more attracted to masculine features for long-term matingYounger and more attractive women have more criteria for long-term mates
17Examining Actual Behaviors In personal advertisements, women respond more toOlder men and taller menMore educated menMen with higher incomesPhysical attractiveness of wife correlates with husband’s statusWomen marry men who are on average about 3 years olderMen compete on the characteristics that women prefer, and deceive women on those characteristicsExposure to attractive women causes men to value things that women prefer
18The Problems with Decision Making The evolution of love (Helen Fisher)testosterone- lustdopamine- romanceoxytocin-attachmentSex and romance feed each other- both suppress critical areas of brainGeneral arousal can accelerate feelings of romantic attractionBirth control pills may inhibit evaluation mechanisms early in a relationship