Presentation on theme: "By Ellina Bokov and Yasmine Tahsili. Introduction: For a long time it has been thought that men’s jealousy over women’s infidelity was the cause of the."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction: For a long time it has been thought that men’s jealousy over women’s infidelity was the cause of the majority of men’s violence against their female partners. But what about women’s jealousy?
Basic Understandings Husbands are more likely to commit infidelity. Both men and women report similar frequency and intensity of jealously related to infidelity. Men use their resources to acquire extra relationships which may lead to arguments and violence based the goal of mate retention. Men may use violence as a method to get their own way: their benefit at the victims, offspring's, and couples cost.
“We argue that husbands employ violence to limit wives' mate retention effort and maintain men's opportunities to pursue extramarital sexual relationships.” Do you agree with the statement above? Do you think this is culture specific? Violence defined as: “any physical contact initiated by a husband with intent to harm a wife (hereafter termed wife abuse).” Noted Ways to Avoid Bias: 1. data are obtained independently from both spouses (consistency) 2. Couples not selected for marital conflict level
Male Jealousy Men’s jealously is evolutionarily based on paternity certainty. Jealousy is used to deter competition and keep women from seeking other mates. Wife abuse for the purpose of mate retention. - What’s to keep the woman from just leaving as a result of the jealousy or abuse? Does it seem effective? They reason that women’s risk of infidelity, men’s jealousy, and wife abuse are linked. Risk factors of women’s infidelity: (1) Youth/fertility -> more mate retention efforts by men because more likely to lose a young wife. (2) Amount of time partners spend away from each other. Greater time apart = more time to get extrapair relationships.
Predictions from Male Jealously Hypothesis A husband's jealousy over a wife's suspected infidelity should be (1) ranked highly as a common type of intense marital conflict (2) a type of conflict frequently associated with wife abuse (3) greater in marriages where a wife's mate value, using her age as a proxy, is higher (i.e., when she is younger) and (4) greater in marriages where spouses spend more time apart. In addition, likelihood of wife abuse should be (5) greater in marriages where a wife is younger and (6) greater in marriages where spouses spend more time apart.
Paternal disinvestment, marital conflict, and wife abuse Men contribute a lot of resources to their family and unlike women have the risk of investing in unrelated offspring. But women do risk losing necessary resources if men divert their resources to other women. Men’s infidelity = paternal disinvestment Women’s jealously is meant to halt or lessen the chance of the husbands infidelity. How does this work? Consider that especially now, jealousy often drives others away instead. Paternal disinvestment hypothesis reasons that wife abuse is employed by husbands to limit wives' mate retention effort and maintain men's opportunities to pursue extrapair sexual relationships.
Predictions from Paternal disinvestment hypothesis: A wife's jealousy over a husband's suspected infidelity should be (1) ranked highly as a common type of intense marital conflict (2) a type of conflict frequently associated with wife abuse; and (3) greater in marriages where a husband has an affair. In addition, likelihood of wife abuse should be (4) greater in marriages where a husband has an affair. It is important to note that predictions 5 and 6 generated by the male jealousy hypothesis do not follow exclusively from this hypothesis.
Study Population Tsimane reside in 60+ villages Houses are closely spaced Women rarely earn wages Common forms of wife abuse include shoving, slapping, and kicking Stable marriages
Data Collection One village in 2010 among monogamously married men and women Included data from 2007 from two other villages Open-ended questions Focused on intense arguments Asked identical structured questions See something that can go wrong?
Data Analysis Reports were analyzed separately Binary logistic regression was used to model effects of covariates on three outcomes: likelihood of reporting in the past year 1. Husband’s jealousy 2. Wife’s jealousy 3. Wife abuse
Content and prevalence of marital arguments Husbands’ Report Wife’s jealousy most commonly reported Wife’s complaint over a husband’s use of money Other recurrent source of conflict: husband’s drinking and work effort Wives’ Reports Their own jealousy as the most prevalent type of argument Husband’s jealousy is the second most commonly reported argument
Content and prevalence of marital arguments Couple-level data All wives reported at least one argument in the past year, five husbands reported no arguments Where husbands are more likely than wives to report arguments, a wife’s behavior is more likely to be the cause Reverse is true for the wives
Prevalence of wife abuse during marital arguments Husbands’ Reports Wife abuse is most often associated with arguments over a wife’s jealousy Wives’ Report Wives also report their own jealousy as most often associated with wife abuse
Prevalence of wife abuse during marital arguments Couple-level data Roughly 20% of husbands and 25% of wives reported wife abuse in the past year Where wives are more likely than husbands to report wife abuse, a husband’s behavior is more likely to be the cause
Effect of wife’s age and spousal time apart on likelihood of reporting a husband’s jealousy Husbands’ Reports A husband’s jealousy constituted 6% of all arguments but not one man reported this argument in the past year Wives’ Reports Reporting a husband’s jealousy in the past year in significantly lower among older women Reporting a husband’s jealousy is marginally greater in marriage where spouses spend more time apart
Effect of husbands' infidelity on likelihood of reporting a wife's jealousy Husbands’ Report likelihood of reporting a wife's jealousy in the past year is marginally greater in marriages where a husband has an affair (p=.074)(N=21). Whereas men's absenteeism does not affect likelihood of reporting a wife's jealousy. Wifes’ Report significantly more likely to report being jealous with a husband (p=.006) (N=30)
Effect of husbands' infidelity, wife's age, and spousal time apart on likelihood of wife abuse Husbands’ Report Wives' Report Husbands are less likely to report wife abuse, but not significantly (p=.125). The odds of wife abuse, controlling for other factors, are over five times greater if a husband had an affair. Likelihood of wife abuse is greater among younger wives and where spouses spend more time apart. Consistent with husbands’ reports. male infidelity no longer predicts likelihood of wife abuse after including an “argument over female jealousy” parameter in the model. odds of wife abuse are nearly nine times greater if a husband was absent from the village in the past year.
Discussion Wife’s jealousy is the most frequent marital argument Men’s diversion of resources from the family Husband’s jealousy is a frequently reported type of marital argument Wife’s jealousy is greater in marriages where a husband has an affair
Discussion Wife abuse is linked to the importance of paternal investment Wife abuse is greater in marriages involving younger wives Fitness benefits to a women of engaging in extrapair sex Why do you guys think wife abuse is greater in marriages involving younger wives?
Discussion Reporting wife abuse is greater in marriages where spouses spend more time apart Men’s absenteeism due to wage labor peaks early in marriage Limitations: causation cannot be inferred
Issues Data too subjective? Problem of forgetting what arguments were really about so long after they happened. Misunderstanding between a couple in regards to what an argument is actually about.