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ANTHONY GIDDENS ● MITCHELL DUNEIER ● RICHARD APPELBAUM ● DEBORA CARR Slides created by Shannon Anderson, Roanoke College Third Edition Chapter 10: Ethnicity.

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Presentation on theme: "ANTHONY GIDDENS ● MITCHELL DUNEIER ● RICHARD APPELBAUM ● DEBORA CARR Slides created by Shannon Anderson, Roanoke College Third Edition Chapter 10: Ethnicity."— Presentation transcript:

1 ANTHONY GIDDENS ● MITCHELL DUNEIER ● RICHARD APPELBAUM ● DEBORA CARR Slides created by Shannon Anderson, Roanoke College Third Edition Chapter 10: Ethnicity and Race 1

2 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. The big issues Understanding what we mean by ethnicity and race. The importance of historical context Trends in global migration Being “ethnic” (non-white) in the U.S. How ethnicity and race affect everyone 2

3 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Race and ethnicity are complicated Is the child of a biracial couple (black and white) black or white? Mixed? Is Judaism a religion or an ethnicity? Both? Race and ethnicity are terms used every day but rarely explored. 3

4 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Defining ethnicity Ethnicity refers to the distinct cultural norms and values of a social group. Characteristics of ethnic groups include (to varying degrees): –Shared history –Religion and culture –Kin or ancestry –Sense of shared destiny –Language 4

5 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Ethnic options Recent research has shown that because of intergroup marriage, for many whites living in the United States, ethnicity has become a choice. For many, ethnicity is largely opted out of altogether. For nonwhites, opting out of ethnicity is not a choice. 5

6 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Defining race Race refers to an externally imposed system of social categorization and stratification. No true biological races exist; rather, human groups must be placed on a continuum. Typically, race refers to some set of physical characteristics granted importance by a society. Race is socially constructed. 6

7 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Racialization The actual imposition of some racial schema on society is called racialization. The process involves both formal and informal inequities, including segregated schools and businesses, along with differentiated rights. These inequalities shape the lives of all those in the racialized society. 7

8 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Racism Racism is a form of prejudice and/or discrimination based on physical differences. There are many layers of racism –Individual consciousness and behavior –Ideologies of supremacy –Institutional racism 8

9 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Concepts related to racism Prejudice Discrimination Stereotypes Scapegoats Minority groups 9

10 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Colonialism and racism We must consider history when working to understand racism today. Modern racism goes back to the history of European colonization of much of the world. The colonizers had strongly ethnocentric attitudes of racial supremacy. 10

11 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Colonialism and racism Those ideologies led to a sometimes paternalistic form of racism, linked to developing scientific racism. Long-standing cultural narratives of white and black—good or purity and evil or impurity— combined with scientific racism helped to deepen and then perpetuate racialization. 11

12 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Models of ethnic coexistence in the United States Assimilation Melting pot Multiculturalism Segregation Problems: both segregation and aggressive assimilation have led to ethnic conflict 12

13 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Studying migration Trends in global migration today: –Acceleration –Diversification –Globalization –Feminization –Transnationalism Global diasporas 13

14 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc % WHITE (NON-HISPANIC) 198,420,355 people 15.1% HISPANIC OR LATINO 45,432,158 people 12.1% AFRICAN AMERICAN 36,397,922 people 4.3% ASIAN 13,000,306 people 1.6% TWO OR MORE RACES 4,794,461 people 0.7% AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE 2,041,269 people 0.1% NATIVE HAWAIIAN AND OTHER PACIFIC ISLANDER 413,294 people 0.2% SOME OTHER RACE 737,938 people Note: This map is not geographically representative of population distribution. SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of the Census 2008b. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company Racial and Ethnic Populations

15 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Race in U.S. history—Slavery From early colonization on, racialization has been part of the story of the United States. Africans were brought as slaves in huge numbers: nearly 4 million by Their responses to slavery varied from rebellion to passivity to cultural development to hostility. With abolition, life for former slaves did not change quickly or evenly. 15

16 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Race in U.S. history —I mmigration 1820–1920: over 30 million immigrants came to the United States voluntarily, mostly from Europe Not all European groups were equally welcomed, nor were Asian immigrants. In 1924 the National Origins Act was passed, restricting immigration. In 1965 that law was rescinded and today’s immigration patterns began. 16

17 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Race in U.S. history—Civil rights Until the 1960s, African Americans had few legal rights or protections. 1954: Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas 1950s: Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King, Jr. 1964: President Lyndon Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act into law There remains some question about the success of the civil rights movement. 17

18 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Latinos in the United States Latinos, or Hispanics, are not a single, unified group aside from their shared language. The three main groups in the United States all have very different histories: –Mexican Americans –Puerto Ricans –Cuban Americans 18

19 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Latinos in the United States Today there are increasing numbers of Central American immigrants. Latinos now make up a larger percentage of the population than African Americans, with approximately 15 percent versus 12 percent (as of 2008). 19

20 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Asians in the United States Like Latinos, Asians are not comprised of a single group of people. The largest groups in the United States include Chinese, Japanese, and Filipinos, though there are sizeable populations of other groups. 20

21 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Asians in the United States Asians have a history of extreme discrimination in U.S. history. Even so, as a group they have done very well and are now often referred to as a “model minority.” Asians currently make up about 4 percent of the U.S. population. 21

22 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Seeing racial and ethnic inequality To say that a society is racialized is to say that it has a racial system of stratification. The United States is a racially stratified society, and we can see this in many places: –Educational attainment –Income –Residence –Wealth 22

23 Figure 10.2A High School Graduation Rates by Race and Ethnicity, Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

24 Figure 10.2B High School Graduation Rates by Race and Ethnicity, Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

25 Figure 10.3 Median Household Income by Race, 1980– Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

26 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Seeing inequality We can also see racial inequality in: –Political representation –Residential segregation –Criminal justice system –Health and wellness 26

27 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Getting ahead Over time, white ethnics have integrated well. Asian Americans have also done quite well when looked at as a whole. Cubans have done very well overall. African Americans, Native Americans, and Puerto Ricans have not fared as well. 27

28 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Why are there such significant gaps? There are a variety of factors that help explain why some groups find more success than others. –Voluntary immigration versus forced minority status –Type and degree of discrimination faced –Ability to blend into the “mainstream” –Affinity of group culture to U.S. culture and values 28

29 W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-Owned This concludes the Lecture PowerPoint Presentation for For more learning resources, please visit our online StudySpace at: 29 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Chapter 10: Ethnicity and Race

30 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 1. What is ethnicity? a. the physical manifestation of racial difference b. any biologically grounded features of a group of people c. any group outside the white, English-speaking majority d. the cultural practices and outlooks of a given community that have emerged historically and tend to set people apart 30

31 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 2. Racism that is embedded in the very structure and operation of society is called a. structural racism. b. institutional racism. c. formal racism. d. modern racism. 31

32 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 3. Which of the following is a characteristic of minority groups? a. The members speak English as a second language. b. The members have no sense of group solidarity. c. The members see themselves as set apart from the majority. d. The members tend to live and work in mostly white neighborhoods. 32

33 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 4. What is the difference between the assimilation and melting pot models of integrating new ethnic groups into the dominant society? a. The assimilation model refers to the new group adopting the norms and values of the dominant society, whereas the melting pot model refers to the merging and blending of dominant and ethnic cultures. b. The assimilation model refers to members of the new group becoming citizens of the host nation, whereas the melting pot model refers to members of the new group remaining guest workers and having only the legal rights afforded to those on work visas. c. The assimilation model refers to members of the new group learning the language of the host nation and dispersing to the suburbs, whereas the melting pot model refers to members of the new group sticking to their own language and becoming concentrated in particular urban neighborhoods. d. The assimilation model refers to the experience of twentieth-century immigrants to the United States, whereas the melting pot model refers to the experience of nineteenth-century immigrants. 33

34 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 5. When Ali moved to the United States from Iraq, he changed his wardrobe by shopping at the local mall, began watching American movies, and indulged in sweets and fast food like the rest of the teenagers his age. Ali’s process of abandoning his original customs and adopting those of the majority is called a. pluralism. b. assimilation. c. melting pot. d. multiculturalism. 34

35 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 6. The process by which a society’s understandings of race are used to classify individuals or groups of people is called a. racialism. b. racism. c. racialization. d. racial identification. 35

36 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 7. How does the experience of blacks in American cities compare with that of other minority groups? a. Blacks have more political representation but less economic wealth. b. Segregation and poverty have not been reduced in the way they have been for other groups. c. Blacks have more wealth and more likely to live in the suburbs than other immigrant groups. d. Blacks have been much less involved in the public sector than immigrant groups, but they have more wealth than other immigrant groups. 36

37 Art Presentation Slides Chapter 10 Anthony Giddens Mitchell Duneier Richard P. Appelbaum Deborah Carr Ethnicity and Race

38 Chapter Opener Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

39 Celebrating the Chinese New Year with performances and decorations is not just a picturesque event every year. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

40 Four schoolboys represent the “racial scale” in South Africa—black, Indian, half- caste, and white. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

41 Map 10.1 Colonization and Ethnicity Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

42 A young girl joins members of the Ku Klux Klan at a demonstration against the Martin Luther King Day holiday in Pulaski, Tennessee. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

43 Map 10.2 Global Migratory Movements since Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

44 Jany Deng at the Arizona Lost Boys Center in Phoenix. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

45 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Racial and Ethnic Populations % WHITE (NON-HISPANIC) 198,420,355 people 15.1% HISPANIC OR LATINO 45,432,158 people 12.1% AFRICAN AMERICAN 36,397,922 people 4.3% ASIAN 13,000,306 people 1.6% TWO OR MORE RACES 4,794,461 people 0.7% AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE 2,041,269 people 0.1% NATIVE HAWAIIAN AND OTHER PACIFIC ISLANDER 413,294 people 0.2% SOME OTHER RACE 737,938 people Note: This map is not geographically representative of population distribution. SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of the Census 2008b. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

46 This nineteenth century cartoon, Where the Blame Lies Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

47 Globalization and Everyday Life Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

48 Globalization and Everyday Life Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

49 Martin Luther King, Jr. addresses a large crowd at a civil rights March on Washington in Born in 1929, King was a Baptist minister, civil rights leader, Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

50 In this 1942 photo, young Japanese Americans wait for bag-gage inspection upon arrival at a World War II Assembly Center in Turlock, California. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

51 Figure 10.2A High School Graduation Rates by Race and Ethnicity, Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

52 Figure 10.2B High School Graduation Rates by Race and Ethnicity, Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

53 Figure 10.3 Median Household Income by Race, 1980– Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

54 Barack Obama became the first African American president of the United States in the historic election of Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

55 Hundreds of thousands of people marched in Los Angeles on May 1, 2006, to demand basic rights for immigrants. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

56 W.W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-Owned Essentials Of Sociology THIRD EDITION This concludes the Art Presentation Slides Slide Set for Chapter 10 by Anthony Giddens Mitchell Duneier Richard P. Appelbaum Deborah Carr


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