2DefinitionsRace–A socially constructed category composed of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider importantSociologists consider racial terms misleading at best and harmful at worst.No society contains biologically “pure” people.
3Definitions Ethnicity–a shared cultural heritage The United States is a multiethnic societyLike race, ethnicity is socially constructedRemember: Race is constructed from biological traits and ethnicity is constructed from cultural traits.For most people, ethnicity is more complex than race.
4Table 14.1a Racial and Ethnic Categories in the United States, 2000 (Continued on next two slides)
7Minority Any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinatesGeneral characteristicsDistinct identity: Race, sex, sexual orientation, the poorSubordination: Often saddled with lower statusStereotypes, stigma, and labelingGroup size not always a factorWomen in US outnumber men.Blacks in South Africa outnumber whites.
8National Map Where the Minority Majority Already Exists By 2004, minorities had become a majority in four states–Hawaii, California, New Mexico, and Texas–and the District of Columbia. At the other extreme, Vermont and Maine have the lowest share of racial and ethnic minorities (about 4% each). Why are states with high minority populations located in the South and Southwest?
9PrejudicePrejudice–A rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people.Stereotype–An exaggerated description applied to every person in some category
10Measuring Prejudice The Social Distance Scale Student opinion shows a trend toward greater social acceptance.People see less difference between various minorities.The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, might have reduced social acceptance of Arabs and Muslims.
11Figure 14.1 Bogardus Social Distance Research (Detail on next slide) The social distance scale is a good way to measure prejudice. Part (a) illustrates the complete social distance scale, from least social distance at the far left to greatest social distance at the far right. Part (b) shows the mean (average) social distance score received by each category of people in Part (c) presents the overall mean score (the average of the scores received by all racial and ethnic categories) in specific years. These scores have fallen from 2.14 in 1925 to 1.44 in 2001, showing that students express less social distance toward minorities today than they did in the past. Part (d) shows the range of averages, the difference between the highest and lowest scores in given years (in 2001, for instance, it was 0.87, the difference between the high score of 1.94 for Arabs and the low score of 1.07 for Americans). This figure has also become smaller since 1925, indicating that today’s students tend to see fewer differences between various categories of people. Source: Parrillo & Donoghue (2005).
13Racism The belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another Racism has been widespread throughout US history where ideas about racial inferiority supported slavery.Overt racism in the US has decreased, but remains a serious social problem.
14Theories of Prejudice Scapegoat theory Disadvantaged people who unfairly blame minorities for their own problemsAuthoritarian personality theoryRigid moralists who see things in “black & white”Culture theoryEveryone has some prejudice because it’s embedded in culture.
15Theories of Prejudice Conflict theory Self-justification for the rich and powerful in the United StatesMinorities might cultivate climate of race consciousness in order to win greater power and privileges.
16Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life The Distribution of Intelligence.
17Discrimination Unequal treatment of various categories of people Institutional prejudice and discrimination–Bias built into the operation of society’s institutionsCarmichael and Hamilton: People are slow to condemn or even recognize institutional prejudice and discrimination because it often involves respected public officials and long-established practices.
18The Vicious CirclePrejudice and discrimination begin as ethnocentric attitudes.As a result, groups can be placed in a situation where they are socially disadvantaged and labeled.A group’s situation, over time, is thus explained as a result of innate inferiority rather than looking at the social structure. of reasons. The cycle then repeats itself
19Figure Prejudice and Discrimination: The Vicious Circle Prejudice and discrimination can form a vicious circle, perpetuating themselves.
20Patterns of Interaction Pluralism–A state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standingAssimilation–The process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant cultureMiscegenation–Biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories
21Patterns of Interaction Segregation–The physical and social separation of categories of peopleGenocide–The systematic killing of one category of people by another
22National Map 14.2 Land Controlled by Native Americans, 1790 to Today In 1790, Native Americans controlled three-fourths of the land (blue-shaded areas) that eventually became the United States. Today, Native Americans control 314 reservations, scattered across the United States, that account for just 2% of the country’s land area. How would you characterize these locations?
23Race and Ethnicity in the US Native AmericansWhite Anglo-Saxon ProtestantsAfrican AmericansAsian AmericansChinese, Japanese, Korean, FilipinosHispanic AmericansMexican, Puerto Ricans, Cuban AmericansArab AmericansWhite Ethnic Americans
24Table 14.3 The Social Standing of African Americans, 2005
25Table 14.4 The Social Standing of Asian Americans
26Table 14.2 The Social Standing of Native Americans, 2000
27Table 14.4 The Social Standing of Asian Americans
28Table 14.5 The Social Standing of Hispanic Americans, 2005
29Table 14.6 The Social Standing of Arab Americans, 1999
30National Map 14.3 The Concentration of Hispanics or Latinos, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Arab Americans, by County, 2000 In 2000, people of Hispanic or Latino descent represented 12.5 % of the US population, compared with 12.3% African Americans, 3.6% Asian Americans, and 0.4% Arab Americans. These maps show the geographic distribution of these categories of people in Comparing them, we see that the southern half of the US is home to far more minorities than the northern half. But do they all concentrate in the same areas? What patterns do the maps reveal?
31Race and Ethnicity: Looking Ahead The US will remain a land of immigrants.Most immigrants arrived in a wave that peaked about 1910.Another wave of immigration began after World War II and swelled as the government relaxed immigration laws in the 1960s.Today, about 1.5 million people come to the United States each year