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An Invitation to Health Chapter 15 Lowering Your Risk of Cancer and Other Major Diseases Dr. Lana Zinger ©2004 Wadsworth Publishing Co.

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Presentation on theme: "An Invitation to Health Chapter 15 Lowering Your Risk of Cancer and Other Major Diseases Dr. Lana Zinger ©2004 Wadsworth Publishing Co."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Invitation to Health Chapter 15 Lowering Your Risk of Cancer and Other Major Diseases Dr. Lana Zinger ©2004 Wadsworth Publishing Co.

2 Metastasis, Or Spread of Cancer

3 How Cancer Starts and Spreads

4 Sex Differences in Cancer

5 Who Is at Risk for Developing Cancer? Heredity Obesity RacialandEthnicGroupsInfectiousAgents

6 How Can I Reduce My Cancer Risk? Cancer-Smart Nutrition Cancer-Smart Nutrition Diet high in antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables. Diet high in antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables. Low fat diet. Low fat diet. Consider food-processing and preparation techniques. Consider food-processing and preparation techniques. Tobacco Smoke Tobacco Smoke First-hand vs. environmental. First-hand vs. environmental. Environmental Risks Environmental Risks Avoidance of carcinogens. Avoidance of carcinogens. Early Detection Early Detection Screening examinations and self-examinations. Chemoprevention Chemoprevention Tamixofen, raloxifene (Evista), and Proscar.

7 Common Types of Cancer Carcinoma SarcomaLymphoma Leukemia

8 Skin Cancer Squamous-Cell Cancer and Basal-Cell Cancer Cause Cause UVA and UVB exposure. Sunlamps and tanning salons. Smoking and exposure to certain chemicals. Inherited skin disorders. Treatments Treatments Surgical removal, cryosurgery, electrodesiccation, topical chemotherapy, and removal with lasers, chemical peels, or dermabrasion.

9 Skin Cancer Melanoma – The deadliest type of skin cancer Cause Cause Exposure to UV radiation. Use of tanning beds. Risks Risks Fair skin Freckles A history of childhood sunburn’ A personal or family history A large number of moles Detection Change in an existing mole. Development of a new and changing pigmented mole. Change in color. An increase in diameter. Changes in borders of the mole. Treatment Surgery; Chemotherapy

10 ABCD: The Warning Signs Of Melanoma

11 Self-exam for Skin Cancer

12 Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Age Family History Age at Menarche Age at Birth of First Child Breast Biopsies RaceOccupationAlcohol Hormone Replacement Therapy

13 Size of Tumors Found by Mammography and Breast Self-Exam

14 Breast Cancer Detection Breast self-examination. Clinical breast exam. Every 3 years for women in their 20’s and 30’s. Every year for women 40+years. Mammogram For all women starting at age 40. Education about breast cancer symptoms. Treatment Surgery Lumpectomy Mastectomy Radiation Drugs Chemotherapy Hormonal therapy Taxol, Taxotere Herceptin

15 Breast Self-Exam Mammography

16 Colon Cancer Risks Age, gender, personal or family history, polyps, ulcerative colitis, smoking, alcohol consumption, high- fat or low-fiber diet, and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables. Age, gender, personal or family history, polyps, ulcerative colitis, smoking, alcohol consumption, high- fat or low-fiber diet, and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables. Early Signs Bleeding from the rectum. Bleeding from the rectum. Blood in the stool. Blood in the stool. Change in bowel habits. Change in bowel habits. Prevention Screening starting at age 50. Fecal occult blood test. Sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy Treatment Surgery Radiation therapy Chemotherapy

17 Screening for Colon Cancer

18 Testicular Cancer Early Signs Enlargement of one testicle. Enlargement of one testicle. Dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin. Dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin. Lumps on the testicles. Lumps on the testicles. Prevention Monthly testicular self-exams Treatment Surgery Removal of nearby lymph nodes Radiation therapy Chemotherapy Testosterone injections

19 Other Common Cancers Cervical Cancer Oral Cancer LungCancer Leukemia Prostate Prostate Cancer Cancer Ovarian Ovarian Cancer Cancer

20 New Hope Against Cancer SurgeryRadiationTherapyChemotherapy BiologicalTherapiesBone-MarrowTransplantation Gene Therapy

21 Types of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Diabetes The pancreas is not producing insulin and the patient requires regular insulin injections. The pancreas is not producing insulin and the patient requires regular insulin injections. Only 5% of all diabetics. Only 5% of all diabetics. Causes Causes ?viral and genetics. ?viral and genetics. Type 2 Diabetes The body is producing some insulin, but is not responding to it properly. 95% of all diabetics over age 20 Causes= Excess body fat, inactivity and genetics.

22 Roles of Insulin ROLE #1 ROLE #1 To move glucose from the blood to the cells of the body where it is used for energy. ROLE #2 ROLE #2 To convert excess glucose to glycogen, stored as an energy reserve in the liver and muscles. Insulin Insulin: A hormone essential for processing glucose in the body. It is produced in the islets of Langerhans within the pancreas.

23 Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes Sudden and dramatic onset of symptoms. Sudden and dramatic onset of symptoms. Symptoms Symptoms Fatigue, irritability, abnormal hunger and thirst, frequent urination, and weight loss. Fatigue, irritability, abnormal hunger and thirst, frequent urination, and weight loss. Life-threatening complications Life-threatening complications Diabetic coma, insulin reaction. Diabetic coma, insulin reaction. Type 2 Diabetes Onset of symptoms are more gradual. Symptoms Same type 1 diabetes plus drowsiness, blurred vision, itching, slow healing cuts, skin infections, and numbness of fingers and toes

24 Treatment for Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Diabetes Insulin injections Home glucose monitoring Well-balanced diet Exercise Weight management Type 2 Diabetes Oral hypoglycemic medications Home glucose monitoring Well-balanced diet Exercise Weight management

25 Long Term Complications of Diabetes KidneyDisease CardiovascularComplicationsDiabeticNeuropathy DiabeticRetinopathy

26 Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders Respiratory Diseases Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) Anemias Iron Deficiency, Sickle Cell, Pernicious Anemia and Aplastic Anemia Liver Disorders Cirrhosis Kidney Diseases Nephrosis and Kidney Stones Digestive Diseases Ulcers, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Irritable Bowel Disease and Gallstones Disorders of the Muscles, Joints, and Bones Arthritis, Hernias, and Back Aches Skin Disorders Eczema, Dermatitis and Psoriasis

27 Protecting Yourself From Cancer and Major Illnesses Avoid excessive exposure to UV light Avoid obvious cancer risks Eat a variety of healthful foods Keep moving Watch your weight Limit consumption of alcoholic beverages Be alert to changes in your body


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