5Who Is at Risk for Developing Cancer? HeredityInfectiousAgentsRacialandEthnicGroupsObesity
6How Can I Reduce My Cancer Risk? Cancer-Smart NutritionDiet high in antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables.Low fat diet.Consider food-processing and preparation techniques.Tobacco SmokeFirst-hand vs. environmental.Environmental RisksAvoidance of carcinogens.Early DetectionScreening examinations and self-examinations.ChemopreventionTamixofen, raloxifene (Evista), and Proscar.
7Common Types of CancerCarcinomaLymphomaSarcomaLeukemia
8Skin Cancer Squamous-Cell Cancer and Basal-Cell Cancer CauseUVA and UVB exposure.Sunlamps and tanning salons.Smoking and exposure to certain chemicals.Inherited skin disorders.TreatmentsSurgical removal, cryosurgery, electrodesiccation, topical chemotherapy, and removal with lasers, chemical peels, or dermabrasion.
9Skin Cancer Melanoma – The deadliest type of skin cancer CauseExposure to UV radiation.Use of tanning beds.RisksFair skinFrecklesA history of childhood sunburn’A personal or family historyA large number of molesDetectionChange in an existing mole.Development of a new and changing pigmented mole.Change in color.An increase in diameter.Changes in borders of the mole.TreatmentSurgery; Chemotherapy
11Self-exam for Skin Cancer Figure 12.12Self-exam for Skin Cancer
12Risk Factors for Breast Cancer AgeFamily HistoryAge at MenarcheAge at Birth of First ChildBreast BiopsiesRaceOccupationAlcoholHormone Replacement Therapy
13Size of Tumors Found by Mammography Figure 7.4Size of Tumors Found by Mammographyand Breast Self-Exam
14Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery Radiation Drugs Detection Breast self-examination.Clinical breast exam.Every 3 years for women in their 20’s and 30’s.Every year for women 40+years.MammogramFor all women starting at age 40.Education about breast cancer symptoms.TreatmentSurgeryLumpectomyMastectomyRadiationDrugsChemotherapyHormonal therapyTaxol, TaxotereHerceptin
16Colon CancerRisksAge, gender, personal or family history, polyps, ulcerative colitis, smoking, alcohol consumption, high-fat or low-fiber diet, and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables.Early SignsBleeding from the rectum.Blood in the stool.Change in bowel habits.PreventionScreening starting at age 50.Fecal occult blood test.Sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopyTreatmentSurgeryRadiation therapyChemotherapy
18Testicular Cancer Early Signs Enlargement of one testicle. Dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin.Lumps on the testicles.PreventionMonthly testicular self-examsTreatmentSurgeryRemoval of nearby lymph nodesRadiation therapyChemotherapyTestosterone injections
19Other Common Cancers Cervical Cancer Oral Cancer Ovarian Cancer Lung ProstateCancerLeukemia
20New Hope Against Cancer SurgeryRadiationTherapyChemotherapyBiologicalTherapiesBone-MarrowTransplantationGene Therapy
21Types of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 DiabetesThe body is producing some insulin, but is not responding to it properly.95% of all diabetics over age 20Causes= Excess body fat, inactivity and genetics.Type 1 DiabetesThe pancreas is not producing insulin and the patient requires regular insulin injections.Only 5% of all diabetics.Causes?viral and genetics.
22Roles of InsulinInsulin: A hormone essential for processing glucose in the body.It is produced in the islets of Langerhans within the pancreas.ROLE #1To move glucosefrom the blood tothe cells of the bodywhere it is usedfor energy.ROLE #2To convert excessglucose to glycogen,stored as an energyreserve in the liverand muscles.
23Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes Type 1 DiabetesSudden and dramatic onset of symptoms.SymptomsFatigue, irritability, abnormal hunger and thirst, frequent urination, and weight loss.Life-threatening complicationsDiabetic coma, insulin reaction.Type 2 DiabetesOnset of symptoms are more gradual.SymptomsSame type 1 diabetes plus drowsiness, blurred vision, itching, slow healing cuts, skin infections, and numbness of fingers and toes
24Treatment for Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 DiabetesInsulin injectionsHome glucose monitoringWell-balanced dietExerciseWeight managementType 2 DiabetesOral hypoglycemic medicationsHome glucose monitoringWell-balanced dietExerciseWeight management
25Long Term Complications of Diabetes DiabeticRetinopathyKidneyDiseaseCardiovascularComplicationsDiabeticNeuropathy
26Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders Respiratory Diseases Anemias Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD)AnemiasIron Deficiency, Sickle Cell, Pernicious Anemia and Aplastic AnemiaLiver DisordersCirrhosisKidney DiseasesNephrosis and Kidney StonesDigestive DiseasesUlcers, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Irritable Bowel Disease and GallstonesDisorders of the Muscles, Joints, and BonesArthritis, Hernias, and Back AchesSkin DisordersEczema, Dermatitis and Psoriasis
27Protecting Yourself From Cancer and Major Illnesses Avoid excessive exposure to UV lightAvoid obvious cancer risksEat a variety of healthful foodsKeep movingWatch your weightLimit consumption of alcoholic beveragesBe alert to changes in your body