Presentation on theme: "Do Now #4 What is cancer? What are some warning signs of cancer? What are some forms of treatment?"— Presentation transcript:
Do Now #4 What is cancer? What are some warning signs of cancer? What are some forms of treatment?
Cancer is the 2 nd leading cause of death in the United States Cancer is abnormal cell growth. It can occur on the skin, body tissue, bone or blood. Carcinogen- a substance that causes cancer. Malignant tumor- a cancerous tumor Metastasis- spread of cancer
Risk Factors In many cases, Cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes. 1- Family History 2- Environment 3- Lifestyle Choices and Behaviors What are some specific examples that would fall under each category? What do you believe is the leading cause for cancer?
In its early stages, cancer may have no symptoms, but eventually a malignant tumor will grow large enough to be detected. Warning Signs of SPECIFIC Cancers C – Change in bowel habits A – A sore that does not heal U – Unusual bleeding or discharge T – Thickening or a lump I – Indigestion or difficulty swallowing O – Obvious change in a wart or mole N – Nagging cough or hoarseness
ABCD Skin care for Moles A symmetry- most melanomas are asymmetrical- meaning they are strangely shaped and are not circular. B order- when the borders of a marking or mole are uneven or blurred. C olor- the marking or mole have different shades of colors. D iameter-cancerous moles are wider and larger
General Signs and Symptoms a)Unexplained weight loss When you lose weight for no known reason, it’s called an unexplained weight loss. An unexplained weight loss of 10 pounds or more may be the first sign of cancer. This happens most often with cancers of the pancreas, stomach, esophagus (swallowing tube), or lung. b)Fever Fever is very common with cancer. Almost all patients with cancer will have fever at some time, especially if the cancer or its treatment affects the immune system. (This can make it harder for the body to fight infection.) Less often, fever may be an early sign of cancer, such as blood cancers like leukemia or lymphoma.
c)Fatigue Fatigue is extreme tiredness that does not get better with rest. It may happen early in cancer, though, in some cancers, like leukemia it’s a chronic symptom. d)Pain Pain may be an early symptom with some cancers like bone cancers or testicular cancer. A headache that does not go away or get better with treatment may be a symptom of a brain tumor. Back pain can be a symptom of cancer of the colon, rectum, or ovary. e)Skin changes Many cancers can cause skin changes that can be seen. Darker looking skin Yellowish skin and eyes Reddened skin Itching Excessive hair growth
Diagnosis 1.Screening test Females- self breast exam, pap smear, mammogram & colonoscopy. Males- self testicular exam, doctor prostate exam Colonoscopy. 2. Lab tests Samples of blood, urine, body tissue or substances in the body are checked for certain features. Identifies possible changes in a person’s health before any symptoms appear. **Early Detection is Critical!**
Imaging Procedures Pictures of areas inside your body that help the doctor see whether a tumor is present. X-rays: view organs and bones. CT scan: view organs. Ultrasound: views body tissue. MRI: views bone, organ and body tissue. PET scan: Shows chemical activities in the body.Biopsy Small piece of tissue taken from suspected area and examined under a microscope to determine if it is cancerous.
Surgery Removal of the tumor and tissue around it. Prevents re growth of tumor. May remove lymph nodes to help determine stage of cancer.
Radiation High-energy radiation used to kill cancer cells by damaging DNA. Can kill normal cells too. Is given in all stages of treatment. Can be used in combination with chemotherapy.
Chemotherapy Used to destroy cancer cells, stop cancer cells from spreading and slow the growth of cancer cells. Systemic drug that will travel throughout the body. Chemotherapy can be given in these forms: An IV (intravenously) A shot (injection) into a muscle or other part of your body A pill or a liquid that you swallow A cream that is rubbed on your skin
Reducing Risk of Cancer Be physically active Achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Eat plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Reduce amount of fat in the food you eat. >30% of daily intake. Limit time in the sun—use sunscreen Avoid all forms of tobacco and alcohol. Know your body and recognize the warning signs of cancer.