Presentation on theme: "Religion Politics and War 16 th & 17 th centuries."— Presentation transcript:
Religion Politics and War 16 th & 17 th centuries
France Adopts Catholicism France is broke due to Hapsburg-Valois Wars Signs Concordat of Bologna –Gives pope authority in France –King (Francis I) got to appoint citizens to papal positions –King would inherit money from the church –Explains why France didnt adopt Protestantism- a political & economic move
Religious Discord in France Due to church corruption, Luther and Calvins ideas became popular in France –Calvins ideas were most popular, he wrote in French French monarchy was weak –Didnt pay attention and allowed conversion Many French citizens converted out of rebellion and spite due to church corruption Violent clashes between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots) occurred often
French Violence Intensifies St. Bartholomews Day Massacre (8/24/1572) –Catholic attack/murder by Henry of Guise on Protestant leader Gaspard de Coligny –Led to the War of the Three Henrys, more religious fighting Henry of Guise (Catholic) Henry of Navarre (Protestant, Bro-in-law to king) Henry III (Catholic King of France, moderate)
St. Bartholomews Day Massacre
War of the 3 Henrys Henry III Henry of Navarre (Henry IV) Henry of Guise
Some Religious Peace War of the Three Henrys ended with the murder of Henry III and Henry of Guise –Henry of Navarre emerges as Henry IV Politique: religious moderate group formed during this time. –Hoping for restoration of a strong monarchy Henry IV appeals to Catholics (even though hes Protestant) –Signed Edict of Nantes, allowing freedom of worship to Huguenots –He restored religious peace
Charles V: Ultimate Catholic Holy Roman Emperor ( ) Inherited a large empire, too large to manage Was ultra-Catholic, but did allow his territory of Flanders (part Belgium) to freely practice Protestantism. –The Flemish citizens loved him Charles steped down (abdicated) to his Spanish son, Phillip II who inherits most of the H.R.E. –Spain is a strong Catholic country…You know where this is going…
Charles V: Holy Roman Emperor
Religious War Under Phillip II of Spain The economy of Flanders suffered and riots emerged under Phillips reign –Many of the rioters were Calvinists who according to doctrine, didnt respect authority that was wrong. –Phillip sent soldiers to stop the riots, 10 years of fighting –Protestantism was eventually crushed in the southern provinces (Flanders/Belgium) –Northern provinces (Netherlands/Holland) held out for Protestantism. Signed Union of Utrecht in 1581 declaring independence from Spain. Phillip didnt back down.
Phillip II of Spain
England Enters the Game The n. provinces asked for help from their Protestant neighbor, Elizabeth I of England –Remember: Elizabeths father (Henry VIII) started the English Reformation in 1534 after being denied a divorce from the pope –Elizabeth helped for a few reasons: English wool trade had declined, spread of Catholicism was bad, & fearful of a Spanish invasion of England
Elizabeth I of England
Defeat of the Spanish Armada Phillip II knew he needed to get rid of the English if he was going to control the northern provinces He sent an armada or fleet of 130 ships to meet the English in the English Channel. (5/9/1588) The English brought 150 better ships –Smaller and faster –The Spanish were out-maneuvered and were defeated Significant because it stopped Phillip II from unifying his empire under Catholicism –Phillip recognized independence of the N. Provinces
Defeat of the Spanish Armada 1588
Beginnings of the 30 Years War The Peace of Augsburg in 1555 tried to allow some religious freedom in Germany (part of the H.R.E.) Problem: Catholic and Protestant princes fought over territory –Alliances formed: Protestant Union (1608) & Catholic League (1609) –Fighting first erupted in Bohemia (Poland) over closed P. churches. 30 Years War Began!
4 Different Phases of War 1. Bohemian Phase: Catholic Victories 2. Danish Phase: Catholic Victories 3. Swedish Phase: Protestant Victories 4. French Phase: Protestant Victories –French entered on the side of the Protestants –Help with $ –Remember: The French are Catholic! –Again, the French would do anything to keep the H.R.E. weak!
The War Ends (Finally!) Lasted 30 years because no one had enough resources to win a quick war Peace of Westphalia (1648) ended religious warfare. –Turning point event in history –N. Provinces (Netherlands) acknowledged –Church steps back and from here on out, has a limited role in European politics N. Germany emerges Protestant and S. Germany Catholic
Chapter 15 Timeline Activity The events of chapter 15 are numerous. It is imperative that we know the chronology of the events listed below and how the Catholic/Protestant religious conflict played a major role in 16 th and 17 th century Europe. Give a detailed description of the significance of each event and the role religion played in that event (5 ws + religion) You should have a solid paragraph (5 sentences minimum) per topic. You may have to give a little background to adequately cover the event. Use a white piece of paper to map out your timeline. Include dates as well as the informational background paragraphs. The topics listed below are not necessarily in chronological order and can be found throughout chapter 15: 1.Peace of Augsburg 2.Concordat of Bologna 3.St. Bartholomews Day Massacre/War of the Three Henrys 4.Edict of Nantes 5.Union of Utrect 6.Defeat of the Spanish Armada 7.Protestant Union 8.Catholic League 9.30 Years War 10.Peace of Westphalia