Presentation on theme: "The Thirty-Years War Presented by: Kyiana Williams Prompt: Analyze various ways in which the Thirty Years’ War represented a turning point in European."— Presentation transcript:
The Thirty-Years War Presented by: Kyiana Williams Prompt: Analyze various ways in which the Thirty Years’ War represented a turning point in European history. What you can write: The ways the thirty years war represented a turning point.
. The Conflict In the Holy Roman Empire there was the Peace of Augsburg of The Protestant Union established in 1608 and was lead by Frederick, the elector of the Palatinate. The Catholics retaliated, thus creating the Catholic League in 1609, lead by Ferdinand of Styria, the new Catholic king of Bohemia.
II. The Beginning Violence began when Ferdinand the king of Bohemia closed some Protestant churches. For revenge Protestants hurled two of Ferdinand’s officials from a castle window in Prague. These events marked the beginning of the Thirty Years’ War, they were also referred to as the “defenestration of Prague”.
III. The War The Thirty Years War ( ) Historians divided the war into four phases: (1) First / Bohemia Phase( ): civil war between the Catholic League and the Protestant Union, it took place in Bohemia. – The Protestants were defeated at the Battle of White Mountain. –Prior to his victory Ferdinand was elected Holy Roman Emperor.
(2) Second / Danish Phase ( ): was called the Danish phase because of the participation of king Christian IV of Denmark. –The Catholics were scoring smashing victories because their imperial army was being led by Albert of Wallenstein - Albrecht von Wallenstein swept victories through Silesia, north through Schleswig and Jutland to the Baltic, and the east into Pomerania. - He fought with the Catholic League and soon the catholic forces divided.
(3) Third / Swedish Phase ( ): began with the arrival in Germany of Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus. –Cardinal Richelieu the chief minister of King Louis XIII of France, subsidized the Swedes hoping to weaken Habsburg. –Protestants received a brilliant victory under the guidance of Adolphus in Later Adolphus succeeds in a different battle at lutzen, but he was fatally wounded. -Gustavus Adolphus died of his wounds in After Adolphus’ death, Sweden suffered a defeat at the Battle of Nordligen in 1634.
(4) Fourth / French / International ( ) –In 1635 Carinal Richelieu declared war on Spain and sent finances and soldiers to assist the Swedes and German protestant princes. –Still with lost of support neither side could defeat the other quickly. –Since neither sides had an advantage a peace was achieved in Oct
V. The Treaty Signed at Munster and Osnabruck, the peace of Westphalia marked a turning point in Europe's political, religious, and social history. –The participation of Swedes in the war: Adolphus landing on German soil to fight the Baltic Empire under Swedish influence proved to be decisive for the future of Protestantism and later for German history. –Religious faiths ended –The treaties recognized the independent authority of more then 3 hundred German Princes –Since Fredrick II Hohenstaufen, the imperial power (the emperor) had shared authority with the princes after the the treaty power was severely limited to the emperors, but the H.R.E. still remained a federation.