3The Valois Family: The Beginning of the End Henri II was the last powerful ValoisThree weak sons followed:Francis IICharles IXHenri IIICatherine de Medici controlled the sons:Was mother to the boysPlayed both sides in the civil warDeveloped a reputation for cruelty
6The French Civil War There were two sides: Guise family led Catholics in NorthBourbon family led Huguenots in SouthFighting for the royal inheritanceCatherine supported the Guises in the first phase.St. Bartholomew’s Day MassacreAugust 24, 157220,000 Huguenots were killedHenri of Navarre, a Bourbon, survived
8The French Civil War Catherine started supporting the Bourbons. Henri of Navarre defeated Catholic League & becomes Henry IV of France.Effects of Civil War:France was left divided by religionRoyal power had weakenedValois family now replaced by BourbonsCatholic LeagueCIVIL WARProtestant Union
9Triumphal Entry of Henry IV Into Paris – Peter Paul Reubens
10Henry IV of France Ended Spanish interference in France Converted to Catholicism :Did this to compromise and make peaceParis is worth a mass.This was an example of politique [the interest of the state comes first before any religious considerations]Fighting for the royal inheritancePassed Edict of Nantes in 1598:Granted religious rights to HuguenotsDid not grant religious freedom for all
13Characteristics of the Thirty Years War The Holy Roman Empire was the battleground.At the beginning it was the Catholics vs. the Protestants.At the end it was Habsburg power that was threatened.Resolved by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.
14The Bohemian Phase: 1618-1622 Ferdinand II inherited Bohemia. The Bohemians hated him.Ferdinand refused to tolerate Protestants.Defenestration of Prague May, 1618Bohemia named a new king, Frederick II.
18The Danish Phase: 1625-1629 Ferdinand II tried to end all resistance. Tried to crush Protestant northern Holy Roman Empire.Ferdinand II used Albrecht von Wallenstein for the army.Wallenstein defeated Protestants in north.Edict of Restitution (1629):Restored to Catholics all lands lost since 1552.Deprived all Protestants, except Lutherans, of their religious and political rights.German princes feared Ferdinand he fired Wallenstein in effort to calm them.
21The Swedish Phase: 1630-1635 France & Sweden now get involved. Both want to stop Habsburg power.Sweden led the charge.France provided support.Gustavus Adolphus invaded the HR Empire.Ferdinand II brought back Wallenstein.Swedish advance was stopped.German princes still feared Ferdinand II.Wallenstein assassinated to appease them.
24The French Phase: 1635-1648 France & Sweden switched roles. All countries in Europe now participated.This phase was most destructive!German towns decimated.Agriculture collapsed famine resulted.8 million dead 1/3 of the population [from 21 million in 1618 to 13.5 million in 1648]Caused massive inflation.Trade was crippled throughout Europe.
26The Peace of Westphalia (1648) The 30 Years’ War officially ended in 1648 with the Peace of WestphaliaThe treaties recognized the sovereignty of the 300+ German princesThe treaties disallowed papal meddling in German religious affairsThe treaties upheld the Peace of Augsburg, added Calvinism to the list of religions allowed in German states and nullified the Edict of Restitution
29Immediate Results of the 30 Years’ War After the Peace in 1648, the northern states in Germany remained primarily Protestant while the southern states in Germany remained primarily CatholicThe United Provinces and Switzerland won recognition as independent statesGerman princes won the right to form alliances and sign treaties as long as they didn’t declare war on the Holy Roman EmpireSweden won cash and land in the Baltic regionFrance won the region of Alsace
30Political Fallout from the 30 Years’ War Because Spain lost territory and France gained territory, France stood alone as the most powerful nation on the continentFrance also benefited from the fragmentation of the Holy Roman Empire and the weakening of the Habsburg family influencePoW=the political power of the Holy Roman Empire faded into oblivion;the Habsburg family remained wealthy and strong, though, and would go on to rule the Austro-Hungarian Empire later
31Things You Must Remember The 30 Years War began as a war of religion and developed into an international war of politicsWhile the war started as a religious war, the war healed no religious woundsFrance proved that international politics would be more important in the coming centuries than religionNo participant in the 30 Years War possessed a large enough army to knock out its opponents; Louis XIV would learn from this
32You must remember this … (Continued) The Alsace region would be hotly contested even as late as World War IIThe Holy Roman Empire historically had more influence in Germany than anywhere else in Europe; therefore, the sovereignty of the German princes essentially meant the end of the Holy Roman EmpireBecause the vast majority of the fighting took place in Germany, the German states suffered more than any other participants