Presentation on theme: "The Thirty Years War Victory for Religious Freedom Or A Worthless Endeavor?"— Presentation transcript:
The Thirty Years War Victory for Religious Freedom Or A Worthless Endeavor?
Overview Four Major phases Devastating loss of capital and life in the German states. 1/3 of the German population dead War officially lasted from 1618-1648, however actual fighting didnt end until 1659. ½ of the German wealth lost
Four Phases of War Phase 1: The Bohemian Period (1618- 1625) Phase 2: The Danish Period (1625- 1629) Phase 3: The Swedish Period (1629- 1635) Phase 4: The Swedish-French Period (1635-1648) Continued fighting between the Spanish and French: (1648-1659)
The Bohemian Period Ferdinand Hapsburg (heir to the HRE throne) became king of Bohemia: 1618 Bohemians reject Ferdinand in favor or Frederick V, a Calvinist ruler of the Palatinate. Fredericks men threw Ferdinands ambassadors out of the window (50 feet into a dry moat filled with manure)--the Defenestration of Prague This resulted in war.
Phase One, continued Spain sent troops to support Ferdinand and so did Maximilian of Bavaria. John George I, a Lutheran from Saxony sent troops to protect Frederick. Ferdinand became Holy Roman Emperor Finally, Fredericks army lost at the Battle of White Mountain in 1620. The Spanish occupied the Palatinate Bohemia became Catholic
The Danish Period King Christian IV of Denmark, supported by England, France, and the Dutch, entered Germany in support of German Protestants. Danish forces were weak and easily defeated by Wallensteins armies (mercenary) 1629: Edict of Restitution: Calvinism illegal Return of all Catholic Church lands taken after 1552.
The Swedish Period Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, supported by France, England, and the Dutch invaded N. Germany in support of German protestants. Swedish forces were strong and well- funded and they were led by Gustavus who was a great military leader. Huge victory at the Battle of Breitenfeld. Use of 6 deep squares with = numbers of musketeers and pikesmen Cavalry alternated pistol shot with sword charges.
Phase Three, continued This phase began to end in failure for the Protestants when Gustavus was killed by a cannonball at the Battle of Lutzen (1632). Ferdinand grew afraid of Wallenstein and had him assassinated in 1634. Peace of Prague: (1635): German states return to cuius regio, eius religio, but Sweden and France continue to fight the Spanish.
The Swedish-French Phase France, guided by Cardinal Richelieu, supplied troops in Germany as part of a bigger war between France and Spain. Sweden kept fighting to avenge the death of Gustavus. Most German states fought only for survival and unbelievable amounts of wealth and life were lost.
Treaty of Westphalia (1648) Official end of the war, but fighting continued between Spain and France Rescinded the Edict of Restitution Reinstituted the Peace of Augsburg Official recognition of Calvinism Independence of Switzerland and the United Provinces of Holland
Treaty of the Pyranees (1659) Fighting continued between France & Spain, both on and off German soil. The Spanish defeat in 1659 reestablished France as the dominant continental power and set the border at the Pyranees.