2 Muscle Types Smooth: spindle shaped Cardiac: cylindrical shaped no striationsinvoluntaryCardiac: cylindrical shapedstriatedinvoluntary (only responds to direct electrical stimulation)Skeletal: elongatedvoluntary
3 MOTION TERMSFLEXION: reduces the angle of the joint from the anatomical position. Flex elbowEXTENSION: movement that returns you to anatomical position. Extend elbow.All these terms refer to either a body part or a joint. Can flex elbow or flex joint.HYPEREXTENSION: extension beyond anatomical position; wrist, neck.Some terms relate only to certain areas, such as the ankle:DORSIFLEXTION: lift up toesPLANTARFLEXION: move toes downINVERSION: when sole of foot points inwardEVERSION: sole of foot points outward.ABDUCTION: move body part away from midline; arm, fingers, thumbADDUCTION: bring back to midline; arms, fingers, thumb
4 MOTION TERMSROTATION: pivot on an axis; shake head “no”; can rotate head and shoulderCIRCUMDUCTION: to draw a circle with body part; shoulder, headPRONATION (to lie prone is on stomach). Turn hands downward.SUPINATION: refers to arms; want a bowl of soup, supinatePROTRACTION: to move anteriorily; shoulders, mandibleRETRACTION: to move part posteriorly; shouldersELEVATION: to raise part superiorly; shouldersDEPRESSION: to lower part; open mouth.
5 Muscle Terms Prime mover Synergist (helps prime mover) Antagonist (does opposite of prime mover)Fixator (holds bone in place so prime mover can move a body part better)
6 SURFACE LANDMARKS THYROID CARTILAGE (Adam’s apple) JUGULAR NOTCH: ridge between two clavicles above manubriumCOSTAL MARGIN: edge of ribcageUMBILICUS (NAVAL): belly buttonINGUINAL REGION: the crease between abdomen and thigh; ant sup iliac spine pubic symphusisGLUTEAL CLEFT (NATAL CLEFT): butt crackPERINEUM: between genitals and anus
7 Trapezius, Latissmus dorsi, Teres major and minor, Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus 1453b3a2
8 Subscapularis, Coracobrachialis Seen on the anterior portion of the scapula12
16 Flexor Retinaculum Not a muscle It is a band-like fibrous fascia over the wrist that covers the flexor tendons and keeps them from bow-stringing up.If there is inflammation from over-use (flexion), the swelling will pinch the median nerve and cause pain in the handThis is called Carpal Tunnel Syndrome