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Presentation on theme: "MUSCLES FOR LECTURE."— Presentation transcript:


2 Muscle Types Smooth: spindle shaped Cardiac: cylindrical shaped
no striations involuntary Cardiac: cylindrical shaped striated involuntary (only responds to direct electrical stimulation) Skeletal: elongated voluntary

3 MOTION TERMS FLEXION: reduces the angle of the joint from the anatomical position. Flex elbow EXTENSION: movement that returns you to anatomical position. Extend elbow. All these terms refer to either a body part or a joint. Can flex elbow or flex joint. HYPEREXTENSION: extension beyond anatomical position; wrist, neck. Some terms relate only to certain areas, such as the ankle: DORSIFLEXTION: lift up toes PLANTARFLEXION: move toes down INVERSION: when sole of foot points inward EVERSION: sole of foot points outward. ABDUCTION: move body part away from midline; arm, fingers, thumb ADDUCTION: bring back to midline; arms, fingers, thumb

4 MOTION TERMS ROTATION: pivot on an axis; shake head “no”; can rotate head and shoulder CIRCUMDUCTION: to draw a circle with body part; shoulder, head PRONATION (to lie prone is on stomach). Turn hands downward. SUPINATION: refers to arms; want a bowl of soup, supinate PROTRACTION: to move anteriorily; shoulders, mandible RETRACTION: to move part posteriorly; shoulders ELEVATION: to raise part superiorly; shoulders DEPRESSION: to lower part; open mouth.

5 Muscle Terms Prime mover Synergist (helps prime mover)
Antagonist (does opposite of prime mover) Fixator (holds bone in place so prime mover can move a body part better)

JUGULAR NOTCH: ridge between two clavicles above manubrium COSTAL MARGIN: edge of ribcage UMBILICUS (NAVAL): belly button INGUINAL REGION: the crease between abdomen and thigh; ant sup iliac spine pubic symphusis GLUTEAL CLEFT (NATAL CLEFT): butt crack PERINEUM: between genitals and anus

7 Trapezius, Latissmus dorsi, Teres major and minor, Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus
1 4 5 3b 3a 2

8 Subscapularis, Coracobrachialis
Seen on the anterior portion of the scapula 1 2

9 Pectoralis Major and Minor
2 1

10 Deltoid 1

11 Triceps brachii, Biceps brachii, Brachialis, Brachioradialis
1 2 3 4

12 Muscles that Define the Axilla
Anterior: Pectoralis major Posterior: Latissimus dorsi and Teres major Base: Lymph nodes Axillary artery Brachial plexus

13 Rhomboids Trapezius Latissimus dorsi

14 Serratus anterior Rectus abdominus External oblique Internal oblique

15 Pronator teres, Flexor retinaculum
1 2

16 Flexor Retinaculum Not a muscle
It is a band-like fibrous fascia over the wrist that covers the flexor tendons and keeps them from bow-stringing up. If there is inflammation from over-use (flexion), the swelling will pinch the median nerve and cause pain in the hand This is called Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

17 Extensor carpi radialis (longus, brevis), Ext carpi ulnaris, Ext digitorum, Ext policis longus
1 3 2 4

18 Flex carpi ulnaris, Palmaris longus, Flex carpi radialis, Flex digitorum superficialis, Flex policis longus 3 2 1 5 4

19 Flexor digitorum profundus

20 Gluteus maximus, Gluteus medius
2 Gluteus maximus, Gluteus medius 1

21 Gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, piriformis
2 3 1

22 Gluteus Maximus When sitting and going to a standing position, this is the primary muscle responsible for straightening the hip

23 Hip Flexors When one foot is on the ground, these muscles contract to lift the opposite foot off the ground

24 Psoas major, Tensor fasciae latae, Sartorius
1 2 3

25 Quadriceps femoris: Rectus femoris, Vastus lateralis, Vastus medius, Vastus intermedius
1 2 3

26 Vastus lateralis, intermedius, and medius

27 Pectineus, Adductor longus, Adductor magnus, Gracilis
1 2 4 3

28 Scarpa’s Triangle

29 Muscles of the Femoral Triangle “Scarpa’s Triangle
Superior: Inguinal ligament Inferior (2): Sartorius and Adductor Longus Contents: Femoral artery/vein Femoral nerve Lymph nodes

30 Scarpa’s Triangle contents

31 Scarpa’s Triangle on a prosthetic device: Make sure no pressure is on this area!

32 Biceps femoris, Semimembranosis, Semitendonosis
1 3 2

33 Notice the prominences of the marked muscles: devices can rub there!



36 Gastrocnemius, Plantaris
2 Gastrocnemius, Plantaris 1

37 Soleus, Popliteus, Tibialis posterior, Flexor digitorum longus, Flexor hallucis longus Peroneus longus, Peroneus brevis 2 1 6 4 5 3

38 Tibialis anterior, Ext hallucis longus, Ext digitorum longus, Peroneus tertius
1 3 2 4


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