Presentation on theme: "Muscles of Upper Appendage (Shoulder, Arm, Forearm, & Hand)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Muscles of Upper Appendage (Shoulder, Arm, Forearm, & Hand) Nestor T. Hilvano M.D., M.P.H.
2 Learning Objectives You should be able to: Identify the principal muscles of the shoulder and upper limbs and indicate their origin, insertions, actions, and innervation.Explain common anatomic and physiologic problems based on what you have learned on this topic.
3 Muscles on Pectoral Girdle Originate on axial skeleton and insert onto clavicle or scapula:Trapezius, Rhomboid major and minor, Levator scapulae, Serratus anterior, Subclavius, Pectoralis muscleScapular movements produced includemedial and lateral rotationelevation and depressionprotraction and retraction___ What bone braces the shoulder and limits movement?a. clavicle b. first rib c. sternum d. humerus
4 Muscles on Pectoral Girdle Anterior Scapular Muscles Pectoralis Minor- ribs 3-5 to coracoid process of scapula- protracts and depressesshoulderSerratus Anterior- ribs 1-9 to medial border of scapula- protracts and rotates shoulder- throwing muscleSubclavius- rib 1 to clavicle- depresses and protracts clavicle
5 Muscles on Pectoral Girdle Posterior Scapular Muscles Trapezius- occipital bone, spinous processes of thoracicvertebrae to clavicle and scapula- action: rotate upward, retract, & depress scapulaLevator scapulae- C1-C4 to superior angle of scapula- action: elevate shoulderRhomboid m. = C7- T1 to medial border of scapula- action: adduct scapula & downward rotation___ What muscles are used in shrugging your shoulders?a. trapezius b. rhnomboid c. levator scapulae d. teres minor
6 Muscles that Move the Arm ___ What is the major abductor of the arm?a. deltoid b. teres majorc. teres minor d. coracobrachialisDeltoid – scapula to deltoid tuberosity of humerus; prime mover; flexion, extension, abduction of humerusCoracobrachialis- assists in flexion & adduction at shoulder jointTeres major- assists in extension & medial rotation at shoulder joint
7 Muscles that Move the Arm Pectoralis major- from anterior chest to crest of greater tubercle of humerus- flexion at shoulderLatissimus dorsi- from thoracic vertebrae to intertubercular groove ofhumerus- extension at shoulder
8 Rotator Cuff Muscles (SITS) Extending from posterior scapula to humerus- Supraspinatus (abducts)Infraspinatus and Teres minor (lateral rotation atshoulder)Extending from anterior scapula to humerus- subscapularis (medial rotation)What muscles are used in throwing a baseball?
9 Muscles that move the Forearm Principal flexorsbiceps brachiiOrigin on scapula, inserts on radiusbrachialisinserts on ulnaSynergistic flexorbrachioradialisPrime extensortriceps brachiiOrigin on scapula,inserts onto olecranon of ulna
11 Muscles of Posterior Forearm Action: Extension of wrist and fingers, adduct &/or abduct wristInnervation - radial nerveExtensor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum, extensor carpi ulnaris, anconeus (extend at elbow), supinator, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis longus, extensor indicisTennis elbow- inflammation at origin of ___ (a. flexor; b. extensor) carpi muscles.
12 Muscles of Hand and Fingers Extrinsic muscles – strength and crude controlIntrinsic muscles – fine control- Thenar group = fleshy base of thumb muscles (abductor pollicis brevis,opponens pollicis, adductor pollicis- Hypothenar group = base of little finger muscles (abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, opponens digiti minimi)- Midpalmar group = Interosseus m. and Lumbrical m.Flexor retinaculum – tendon passes underneath except palmaris longus.
13 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Repetitive motions cause inflammation and pressure on _____ nerve which innervates the hand.Impairment of pronation of forearm and weakens flexion of wrist (chronic pain)a. Median nerve b. radial nerve c. ulnar nerve d. axillary nerve
14 Muscles that move the Forearm and Hand Biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis – flexes the _________________________Triceps brachii – extends the __________Flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis, and palmaris longus – flexion of ____________Extensor carpi radialis and extensor carpi ulnaris – extension and abduction, and extension and adduction of _______________Pronator teres and pronator quadratus- pronate _______________________
15 Homework (Self Review) Describe carpal tunnel syndrome.What is flexor retinaculum and it’s importance?Name the muscles involved in the following:___ extends the shoulders a. subclavius___ throwing a ball b. extnesor carpi radialis___ shrugging the shoulders c. flexor carpi radialis___ flexes the shoulders d.supraspinatus___ extend the forearm/elbow e. biceps___ major abductor of arm f. triceps___ flexion of wrist g. deltoid___ flexion of elbow/move forearm up h. pectoralis major___ extension of wrist i. levator scapulae___ depresses the clavicle j. latissimus dorsi