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-Ing Form or Infinitive For Bachillerato Students According to Practical English Usage by Michael Swan.

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1 -Ing Form or Infinitive For Bachillerato Students According to Practical English Usage by Michael Swan


3 -Ing Form: subject, object or complement of a preposition The -ing form often acts as a verb and a noun at the same time. It can be followed by an object (eg writing letters), but it can also itself be the subject, object or complement of a sentence: Writing letters takes a long time I hate writing letters Im not used to writing letters I learn vocabulary by writing it several times

4 -Ing Form after Verb When one verb is followed by another, the second verb is sometimes in the –ing form. The most common are: admitescapemind appreciateexcusemiss avoidfacepostpone considerfeel likepractise contemplatefinishput off delay forgiveresent denygive upresist detestcant helprisk dislikeimaginecant stand endureinvolvesuggest enjoymention understand

5 Some examples of this are: sitting You could avoid sitting in traffic jams by leaving home earlier. I cant help falling in love with you. Please, take your time; I dont mind waiting. I need to do some studying. I wont risk failing any exams again. I cant stand queueing. It just gets on my nerves. My friends suggested travelling to London for the Easter holiday. -Ing Form after Verb

6 Infinitive An infinitive can also be the subject of a sentence, especially in older English (eg To err is human, to forgive divine). In modern English, it is more common to begin the sentence with it as preparatory subject and to put later, after an adjective.( Its easy to make mistakes rather than To make mistakes is easy) The combination adjective + infinitive can express various meanings, depending on which adjective is used: I was very pleased to see you yesterday Relativity theory isnt easy to understand.

7 Infinitive of purpose Infinitives can also be combined with nouns to express what will be done with something (eg Have you got a key to unlock the door?) The infinitive with to is used to talk about peoples purposes, the reason why they do things. I went to Brighton to learn English In negative sentences, in order not to or so as not to are used; the infinitive alone is usually incorrect: Im going now so as not to miss the train.

8 Infinitive after Verb The most common verbs followed by an infinitive are: afforddecideloveseem agreedeterminemanagestart appearexpectmeanswear arrangefailneglecttrouble askforgetoffertry attempthappenpreferwant bearhatepreparewish beghelppretend beginhesitatepromise carehopepropose chooseintendrefuse consentlearnregret darelikeremember

9 Some examples of this are: I cant afford to buy that BMW. Shall we arrange to meet at eight? I chose to come to this school because I didnt dare to apply for the bilingual one. I failed to ring him. I meant to do it yesterday but I seem to have lost his phone number. He promised to look after the dog but now he refuses to take him for walks. My mum started to learn to drive only last month, but she doesnt want to continue. Infinitive after Verb

10 Verb + Object + Infinitive Some verbs are used with an object before and an infinitive (eg She wants me to go shopping with her; not *…that I go…) The most common verbs using this construction are: advisegetordertrouble allowhatepermiturge askhelppersuadewant bearinstructpreferwarn begintendpresswish causeinviterecommend commandleaverequest encouragelikeremind expectmeanteach forbidneedtell forceobligetempt

11 Certain verbs are followed by an object and the infinitive without to (bare infinitive). The most common are: let see help notice make hear feel watch She lets her children stay up very late. I made them give me the money back. I didt see you come in. Can you help me finish my homework? The verbs have and know can also form this construction on certain occasions. Have Mrs Hansen come in, please. Verb + Object + Bare Infinitive

12 -Ing Form or Infinitive? Some verbs can be followed by either –ing or infinitive, usually with a difference in meaning. The most important cases are: advisehearstart allowintendstop attemptlike try cant bearlovewatch beginpermit continueprefer forbidpropose forgetregret go onremember hatesee Let us study a few of these differences

13 Remember, forget and regret The difference is connected with time. When they are followed by the –ing form, they refer to things that happened before the verb. When they are followed by the infinitive they refer to things that happen after the verb. I will always remember meeting you for the first time I will always remember to buy you a birthday present.

14 Stop and go on When they are followed by the –ing form, they refer to things that are in progress. When they are followed by the infinitive they refer to things that will be started. I must really stop smoking soon. I must really stop to smoke a cigarette or else Ill fall asleep. How long do you intend to go on watching TV? He said hello and then went on to start work.

15 Like, love, hate and prefer They are mainly used followed by the –ing form, especially in British English. However, they can also be followed by the infinitive when they refer to a specific occasion, in which case the action seems like a good idea: I like walking in the rain. I like to walk after dinner so that I can get tired before I go to sleep.

16 Allow, advise, forbid and permit They dont change their meaning. They need to change the structure according to whether they are followed by an object or not. We dont allow smoking in our house. We dont allow people to smoke in our house.

17 Try It is followed by the infinitive when its meaning is attempting to do something or to making an effort: I tried to learn Japanese but the pronunciation was too difficult for me. It is followed by the –ing form when the meaning is making an experiment: If you find Japanese difficult, you should try using this speech trainer; youll be impressed!

18 Do you want some more? I could easily add more for you, but first, you must learn all the information in these interesting slides

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