Presentation on theme: "-Ing Form or Infinitive"— Presentation transcript:
1 -Ing Form or Infinitive Bachillerato StudentsAccording to Practical English Usage by Michael Swan
2 Non-personal Verb Forms INFINITIVE-ING FORMPARTICIPLEPRESENTTO DODOINGDONEPERFECTTO HAVE DONEHAVING DONE____PASSIVETO BE DONEBEING DONE
3 -Ing Form: subject, object or complement of a preposition The -ing form often acts as a verb and a noun at the same time. It can be followed by an object (eg writing letters), but it can also itself be the subject, object or complement of a sentence:Writing letters takes a long timeI hate writing lettersI’m not used to writing lettersI learn vocabulary by writing it several times
4 -Ing Form after VerbWhen one verb is followed by another, the second verb is sometimes in the –ing form. The most common are:admit escape mindappreciate excuse missavoid face postponeconsider feel like practisecontemplate finish put offdelay forgive resentdeny give up resistdetest can’t help riskdislike imagine can’t standendure involve suggestenjoy mention understand
5 -Ing Form after Verb Some examples of this are: You could avoid sitting in traffic jams by leaving home earlier.I can’t help falling in love with you.Please, take your time; I don’t mind waiting.I need to do some studying. I won’t risk failing any exams again.I can’t stand queueing. It just gets on my nerves.My friends suggested travelling to London for the Easter holiday.
6 InfinitiveAn infinitive can also be the subject of a sentence, especially in older English (eg “To err is human, to forgive divine”).In modern English, it is more common to begin the sentence with “it” as preparatory subject and to put later, after an adjective.( “It’s easy to make mistakes” rather than “To make mistakes is easy”)The combination adjective + infinitive can express various meanings, depending on which adjective is used:I was very pleased to see you yesterdayRelativity theory isn’t easy to understand.
7 Infinitive of purposeInfinitives can also be combined with nouns to express what will be done with something (eg Have you got a key to unlock the door?)The infinitive with to is used to talk about people’s purposes, the reason why they do things.I went to Brighton to learn EnglishIn negative sentences, in order not to or so as not to are used; the infinitive alone is usually incorrect: I’m going now so as not to miss the train.
8 Infinitive after VerbThe most common verbs followed by an infinitive are:afford decide love seemagree determine manage startappear expect mean sweararrange fail neglect troubleask forget offer tryattempt happen prefer wantbear hate prepare wishbeg help pretendbegin hesitate promisecare hope proposechoose intend refuseconsent learn regretdare like remember
9 Infinitive after Verb Some examples of this are: I can’t afford to buy that BMW.Shall we arrange to meet at eight?I chose to come to this school because I didn’t dare to apply for the bilingual one.I failed to ring him. I meant to do it yesterday but I seem to have lost his phone number.He promised to look after the dog but now he refuses to take him for walks.My mum started to learn to drive only last month, but she doesn’t want to continue.
10 Verb + Object + Infinitive Some verbs are used with an object before and an infinitive (eg She wants me to go shopping with her; not *…that I go…)The most common verbs using this construction are:advise get order troubleallow hate permit urgeask help persuade wantbear instruct prefer warnbeg intend press wishcause invite recommendcommand leave requestencourage like remindexpect mean teachforbid need tellforce oblige tempt
11 Verb + Object + Bare Infinitive Certain verbs are followed by an object and the infinitive without to (bare infinitive). The most common are:let see help noticemake hear feel watchShe lets her children stay up very late.I made them give me the money back.I did’t see you come in.Can you help me finish my homework?The verbs have and know can also form this construction on certain occasions.Have Mrs Hansen come in, please.
12 -Ing Form or Infinitive? Some verbs can be followed by either –ing or infinitive, usually with a difference in meaning. The most important cases are:advise hear startallow intend stopattempt like trycan’t bear love watchbegin permitcontinue preferforbid proposeforget regretgo on rememberhate seeLet us study a few of these differences
13 Remember, forget and regret The difference is connected with time.When they are followed by the –ing form, they refer to things that happened before the verb.When they are followed by the infinitive they refer to things that happen after the verb.I will always remember meeting you for the first timeI will always remember to buy you a birthday present.
14 Stop and go onWhen they are followed by the –ing form, they refer to things that are in progress.When they are followed by the infinitive they refer to things that will be started.I must really stop smoking soon.I must really stop to smoke a cigarette or else I’ll fall asleep.How long do you intend to go on watching TV?He said hello and then went on to start work.
15 Like, love, hate and prefer They are mainly used followed by the –ing form, especially in British English. However, they can also be followed by the infinitive when they refer to a specific occasion, in which case the action seems like a good idea:I like walking in the rain.I like to walk after dinner so that I can get tired before I go to sleep.
16 Allow, advise, forbid and permit They don’t change their meaning. They need to change the structure according to whether they are followed by an object or not.We don’t allow smoking in our house.We don’t allow people to smoke in our house.
17 TryIt is followed by the infinitive when its meaning is attempting to do something or to making an effort:I tried to learn Japanese but the pronunciation was too difficult for me.It is followed by the –ing form when the meaning is making an experiment:If you find Japanese difficult, you should try using this speech trainer; you’ll be impressed!
18 Do you want some more?I could easily add more for you, but first, you must learn all the information in these interesting slides