Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Using Applied Behavior Analysis in the Schools By Tracy Vail,MS,CCC/SLP Speech/Language Pathologist Lets Talk Speech and Language Service, Inc Letstalksls.com.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Using Applied Behavior Analysis in the Schools By Tracy Vail,MS,CCC/SLP Speech/Language Pathologist Lets Talk Speech and Language Service, Inc Letstalksls.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 Using Applied Behavior Analysis in the Schools By Tracy Vail,MS,CCC/SLP Speech/Language Pathologist Lets Talk Speech and Language Service, Inc Letstalksls.com

2 What is Applied Behavior Analysis? The Science of learning The Science of learning Tells us why people do what they do Tells us why people do what they do Looks at the contingencies of behavior (What happens before and after) to analyze the function Looks at the contingencies of behavior (What happens before and after) to analyze the function Helps us determine how the environment can be modified to improve learning Helps us determine how the environment can be modified to improve learning

3 What is Behavior? Anything that can be seen, felt and counted by either an individual or others in their environment. Anything that can be seen, felt and counted by either an individual or others in their environment. Which of these are behaviors? Which of these are behaviors? Saying cookie, thinking about a cookie, touching a cookie, dreaming about a cookie, baking a cookie, looking at a cookie, reaching toward a cookie Saying cookie, thinking about a cookie, touching a cookie, dreaming about a cookie, baking a cookie, looking at a cookie, reaching toward a cookie

4 What is a Discrete Trial? Antecedent/Stimulus Antecedent/Stimulus Response/Behavior Response/Behavior Consequence (neutral, reinforcement, punishment) Consequence (neutral, reinforcement, punishment) How we manipulate these contingencies determines whether a behavior will increase or decrease.

5 Contingencies Contingencies (Function Alt.)EvocativeFunction Altering Reinforcement Reinforcement Soc. Med + Soc. Med – Auto + R Auto – (s-delta)Extinction (s-delta)Extinction CSS MO SD Punishment Positive Punishment Negative Punishment Antecedent/Stimulus Response Consequence

6 Reinforcement Increases the likelihood that a behavior will occur again in the future. Increases the likelihood that a behavior will occur again in the future. 4 categories or buckets of behaviors based on the reinforcement history 4 categories or buckets of behaviors based on the reinforcement history What serves as a reinforcer is highly variable. What serves as a reinforcer is highly variable. Must be contingent on the behavior you want to increase Must be contingent on the behavior you want to increase Is not a thing but an effect on the behavior. Is not a thing but an effect on the behavior. If a behavior is increasing, something is reinforcing it. If a behavior is increasing, something is reinforcing it. If a child bites in circle time and is put in time out then comes back and bites again, what served as a reinforcer? If a child bites in circle time and is put in time out then comes back and bites again, what served as a reinforcer?

7 How do you create new Reinforcers? Pair or associate the new thing/person with something the child already finds reinforcing. Pair or associate the new thing/person with something the child already finds reinforcing. The new thing/person becomes a conditioned reinforcer. The new thing/person becomes a conditioned reinforcer. Learn the child and be the provider of all good things Learn the child and be the provider of all good things

8 Pair Sounds/Talking with Fun!

9 BE the Reinforcer!

10 Motivation Operation 1.Temporarily Increases the value of a reinforcer. 2.Temporarily Increases the behaviors that have been consequated by that reinforcer in the past. Ex:If in the past, when I wanted to have some juice, I said juice, Im more likely to say juice again when I want it. Without motivation, you have no reinforcer. Without a reinforcer, you cannot increase behaviors. If you arent increasing behaviors, you arent teaching! :0)

11 Socially Mediated Positive Reinforcement Behaviors that have a history of being reinforced by getting things/attention from people. Behaviors that have a history of being reinforced by getting things/attention from people. Increase by capturing motivation, teaching appropriate behavior and reinforcing. Increase by capturing motivation, teaching appropriate behavior and reinforcing. Decrease by determining reinforcement history, not allowing it to work anymore and teaching a replacement behavior to get the same need met. Decrease by determining reinforcement history, not allowing it to work anymore and teaching a replacement behavior to get the same need met.

12 Socially Mediated Negative Reinforcement Behaviors that have been reinforced by escape or delay of demands involving people. Behaviors that have been reinforced by escape or delay of demands involving people. To increase, determine motivation and teach appropriate communication to get need met. To increase, determine motivation and teach appropriate communication to get need met. To decrease, determine reinforcement history, dont let it work anymore and teach a replacement. To decrease, determine reinforcement history, dont let it work anymore and teach a replacement.

13 Automatic Positive Reinforcement Behaviors that are reinforced because they feel good. Behaviors that are reinforced because they feel good. Often known as stims Often known as stims Are self-reinforcing. The more they do it, the more they will do it in the future. Are self-reinforcing. The more they do it, the more they will do it in the future. Teach appropriate ways (or places) to get the sensory need met, limit time spent, and pair with people. Teach appropriate ways (or places) to get the sensory need met, limit time spent, and pair with people.

14 Automatic Negative Reinforcement Behaviors I do because they remove a bad or uncomfortable feeling. Behaviors I do because they remove a bad or uncomfortable feeling. Figure out what part of the environment is affecting the child then either desensitize or compensate. Figure out what part of the environment is affecting the child then either desensitize or compensate. Desensitization: gradual exposure with heavy reinforcement for increased tolerance. Desensitization: gradual exposure with heavy reinforcement for increased tolerance.

15 Self-Stimulatory Behavior

16 So What is Teaching? Increasing adaptive or new behaviors that will allow the child to be more successful in the world and decreasing behaviors that are maladaptive or that will cause the child to have difficulty in the world. Increasing adaptive or new behaviors that will allow the child to be more successful in the world and decreasing behaviors that are maladaptive or that will cause the child to have difficulty in the world.

17 DODont follow negative behavior with reinforcement Remove a child from a reinforcing activity to begin teaching Give directions to do things you cant prompt Give directions without getting compliance Kill reinforcers by placing too many demands Teach errorlessly Fade in demands Teach to Fluency Prompt Quickly Fade prompts Make sure all questions have answers Find numerous reinforcers Correct errors Have fun!

18 Build Motivation (MO) Establish Reinforcers- everyone wants something! Establish Reinforcers- everyone wants something! Start with non-verbal connection then add verbal Start with non-verbal connection then add verbal How does the child respond to the environment? How does the child respond to the environment? Be playful- play as children play Be playful- play as children play Build anticipation Build anticipation Do the unexpected Do the unexpected Create routines Create routines Gradually change the routines Gradually change the routines Stay connected to find reinforcers Stay connected to find reinforcers Be animated Be animated Pair yourself and talking with reinforcement Pair yourself and talking with reinforcement

19 Transfer Procedures/Prompting Teach a new behavior by starting with a behavior that you know the child can already do. Teach a new behavior by starting with a behavior that you know the child can already do. The child is more likely to repeat the same behavior under a different condition The child is more likely to repeat the same behavior under a different condition Once the behavior is taught under the new condition, gradually fade the prompt Once the behavior is taught under the new condition, gradually fade the prompt New learning is build on old learning New learning is build on old learning The learning remains errorless The learning remains errorless

20 Teaching Procedure for Transfers Transfer trial- Use the mastered skill to evoke the desired behavior then present the new SD to get the same behavior. Transfer trial- Use the mastered skill to evoke the desired behavior then present the new SD to get the same behavior. Disractor trial(s)- Present a mastered task or two Disractor trial(s)- Present a mastered task or two Independent trial- Re-present the new SD to evoke the behavior and reinforce correct response heavily Independent trial- Re-present the new SD to evoke the behavior and reinforce correct response heavily

21 Correction Procedure Use whenever the child responds incorrectly Use whenever the child responds incorrectly Give the SD + the response Give the SD + the response Wait for the echoic Wait for the echoic Repeat the SD Repeat the SD Wait for the response Wait for the response Run a distractor trial (something the child can do easily) Run a distractor trial (something the child can do easily) Repeat the SD Repeat the SD

22 What to Teach Early Learners?? People are fun (even kids!) People are fun (even kids!) Words are valuable Words are valuable I can learn I can learn Playing is fun and teaches me lots of things about the world. Playing is fun and teaches me lots of things about the world.

23 Verbal Behavior- Verbal Operants (Skinner) Verbal Behavior- Verbal Operants (Skinner) Antecedent/StimulusBehaviorConsequence Mand Motivation Says cargets car Echoic Say car Says car social/secondary Tact Car presentSays car social/secondary IntraverbalWe ride in the..Says car social/sec.

24 Verbal Operants Mands- I talk, I get Mands- I talk, I get Tacts- I can label things in the environment under a variety of conditions Tacts- I can label things in the environment under a variety of conditions Receptives- I can follow directions, do what others tell me to do Receptives- I can follow directions, do what others tell me to do Imitation/Echoics- I can do/say what others do/say Imitation/Echoics- I can do/say what others do/say Intraverbal- What I say is dependent upon what others say but is not the same Intraverbal- What I say is dependent upon what others say but is not the same What purpose does the communication serve to the speaker and listener?

25 Pairing Sounds with Fun!

26 Imitate All Sounds Produced

27 Reinforce all vocal attempts

28 Pairing with favorite activities

29 Manding The basis of all other verbal behavior The basis of all other verbal behavior Teach by transferring from echoics or fill-ins Teach by transferring from echoics or fill-ins Giving up the things we want Giving up the things we want With and without items present With and without items present With and without someone asking What do you want? With and without someone asking What do you want? Teach a variety of sentence forms Teach a variety of sentence forms Manding from peers Manding from peers Expand sentence length and teach concepts through mands Expand sentence length and teach concepts through mands Teach manding for information Teach manding for information Manding for attention Manding for attention

30 Choosing Response Forms If child is non-vocal, must use an alternative/augmentative system If child is non-vocal, must use an alternative/augmentative system Augmentative communication encourages rather than discourages vocal productions Augmentative communication encourages rather than discourages vocal productions Experiment to determine how the child responds to various forms Experiment to determine how the child responds to various forms Picture/object exchange Picture/object exchange Signs Signs Communication Boards Communication Boards Vocal Vocal Voice output devices Voice output devices

31 Manding with PECS

32 Manding with Signs

33 Be sure not to fade signs too quickly

34 Watch for Sign/Vocal Inconsistencies

35 Shaping Vocals through Mands

36 Gradually Build Syllables

37 Mands for Info, Spontaneous Tacts

38 NET Manding/Mands for Info

39 Begin Teaching in scripted play

40 Generalize in less structured format

41 Teaching Concepts through Mands

42 Imitation Teach through physical prompting or anticipating actions Teach through physical prompting or anticipating actions Important for independent learning and play Important for independent learning and play Teach child to do multiple actions in response to Do this Teach child to do multiple actions in response to Do this Gradually increase difficulty and complexity Gradually increase difficulty and complexity

43 Mix NVIs with other Operants

44 Echoics- Vocal Imitation Teach by transferring from mand, motor imitation, songs, sound play and pairing with reinforcement Teach by transferring from mand, motor imitation, songs, sound play and pairing with reinforcement Use visual and/or physical prompting as necessary Use visual and/or physical prompting as necessary Gradually increase length and complexity Gradually increase length and complexity Shape through the mand Shape through the mand

45 Teaching Isolated Sounds

46 Receptive Teach by transferring from imitation or with physical prompts Teach by transferring from imitation or with physical prompts Teach the child to respond to a variety of SDs (touch, find, show, wheres the etc.) Teach the child to respond to a variety of SDs (touch, find, show, wheres the etc.) Start with items the child can mand for as well as simple instructions (i.e. come, sit, clap) Start with items the child can mand for as well as simple instructions (i.e. come, sit, clap) Gradually increase complexity. Closely monitor conditional discriminations Gradually increase complexity. Closely monitor conditional discriminations

47 Add receptives to reinforcing activities

48 Receptive Objects

49 Tacts Teach by transferring from receptive (if child tacts), mand, fill-in, intraverbal or echoic. Teach by transferring from receptive (if child tacts), mand, fill-in, intraverbal or echoic. Labeling objects, actions, parts, features, classes, functions Labeling objects, actions, parts, features, classes, functions Be sure to vary SDs Be sure to vary SDs Verbal modules- teach the child to discriminate between question forms Verbal modules- teach the child to discriminate between question forms Build up sentences and break them down Build up sentences and break them down

50 Fill-in to Tact Transfers

51 Intraverbal Talking about things not present Talking about things not present Transfer from fill-in, tact, or echoic Transfer from fill-in, tact, or echoic Create intraverbal links Create intraverbal links Begin with songs, rhymes, stories and daily activities Begin with songs, rhymes, stories and daily activities Gradually increase complexity Gradually increase complexity Teach reversal fill-ins early Teach reversal fill-ins early Mands for information + intraverbals = conversation Mands for information + intraverbals = conversation

52 Fill-ins with Books

53 Fill-ins with Songs

54 Intensive Teaching Use to practice skills taught in the natural environment Use to practice skills taught in the natural environment Make sure instructors have mastered transfer and correction procedures to fluency Make sure instructors have mastered transfer and correction procedures to fluency Mix and vary to make sure the child is responding to the correct SD Mix and vary to make sure the child is responding to the correct SD

55 Intraverbal FFCs/Categories in Intensive Teaching

56 Use Available Reinforcers

57 Dealing with Negative Behaviors New Behavior (talking) wont be used if the old behavior (hitting) still works New Behavior (talking) wont be used if the old behavior (hitting) still works Must determine function of the behavior before determining how to respond Must determine function of the behavior before determining how to respond Look at what happened right before and right after the behavior Look at what happened right before and right after the behavior Put time between negative behavior and prompting appropriate communication Put time between negative behavior and prompting appropriate communication The child never gets anything for negative behavior The child never gets anything for negative behavior Dont live your life trying to avoid negative behaviors Dont live your life trying to avoid negative behaviors Get a functional analysis by a behavior analyst if problems persist Get a functional analysis by a behavior analyst if problems persist

58 Suggested Readings Educate Towards Recovery by Robert Schramm Educate Towards Recovery by Robert Schramm The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (The ABLLS) by Partington and Sundberg The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (The ABLLS) by Partington and Sundberg The VB-MAPP by Mark Sundberg The VB-MAPP by Mark Sundberg The Mariposa School Training Manual The Mariposa School Training Manual Handouts available at letstalksls.com (Answers Database) Handouts available at letstalksls.com (Answers Database)

59 Thanks for who you are for children!


Download ppt "Using Applied Behavior Analysis in the Schools By Tracy Vail,MS,CCC/SLP Speech/Language Pathologist Lets Talk Speech and Language Service, Inc Letstalksls.com."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google