Presentation on theme: "Using Applied Behavior Analysis in the Schools"— Presentation transcript:
1 Using Applied Behavior Analysis in the Schools ByTracy Vail,MS,CCC/SLPSpeech/Language PathologistLet’s Talk Speech and Language Service, IncLetstalksls.com
2 What is Applied Behavior Analysis? The Science of learningTells us why people do what they doLooks at the contingencies of behavior (What happens before and after) to analyze the functionHelps us determine how the environment can be modified to improve learning
3 What is Behavior?Anything that can be seen, felt and counted by either an individual or others in their environment.Which of these are behaviors?Saying cookie, thinking about a cookie, touching a cookie, dreaming about a cookie, baking a cookie, looking at a cookie, reaching toward a cookie
4 What is a Discrete Trial? Antecedent/StimulusResponse/BehaviorConsequence (neutral, reinforcement, punishment)How we manipulate these contingencies determines whether a behavior will increase or decrease.
5 Contingencies Antecedent/Stimulus Response Consequence CSS MO SD (Function Alt.) Evocative Function AlteringReinforcementSoc. Med +Soc. Med –Auto +R Auto –(s-delta) ExtinctionCSS MO SDPunishmentPositive PunishmentNegative Punishment
6 ReinforcementIncreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur again in the future.4 categories or “buckets” of behaviors based on the reinforcement historyWhat serves as a reinforcer is highly variable.Must be contingent on the behavior you want to increaseIs not a “thing” but an effect on the behavior.If a behavior is increasing, something is reinforcing it.If a child bites in circle time and is put in time out then comes back and bites again, what served as a reinforcer?
7 How do you create new Reinforcers? “Pair” or associate the new thing/person with something the child already finds reinforcing.The new thing/person becomes a “conditioned” reinforcer.Learn the child and be the provider of “all good things”
10 Motivation Operation Temporarily Increases the value of a reinforcer. Temporarily Increases the behaviors that have been consequated by that reinforcer in the past.Ex:If in the past, when I wanted to have some juice, I said “juice”, I’m more likely to say juice again when I want it.Without motivation, you have no reinforcer. Without a reinforcer, you cannot increase behaviors. If you aren’t increasing behaviors, you aren’t teaching! :0)
11 Socially Mediated Positive Reinforcement Behaviors that have a history of being reinforced by getting things/attention from people.Increase by capturing motivation, teaching appropriate behavior and reinforcing.Decrease by determining reinforcement history, not allowing it to “work” anymore and teaching a replacement behavior to get the same need met.
12 Socially Mediated Negative Reinforcement Behaviors that have been reinforced by escape or delay of demands involving people.To increase, determine motivation and teach appropriate communication to get need met.To decrease, determine reinforcement history, don’t let it work anymore and teach a replacement.
13 Automatic Positive Reinforcement Behaviors that are reinforced because they feel good.Often known as “stims”Are self-reinforcing. The more they do it, the more they will do it in the future.Teach appropriate ways (or places) to get the sensory need met, limit time spent, and pair with people.
14 Automatic Negative Reinforcement Behaviors I do because they remove a “bad” or uncomfortable feeling.Figure out what part of the environment is affecting the child then either desensitize or compensate.Desensitization: gradual exposure with heavy reinforcement for increased tolerance.
15 Self-Stimulatory Behavior High stereotypyContinued absence of alternative behaviorsImpaired learningFewer skills acquired
16 So What is Teaching?Increasing adaptive or new behaviors that will allow the child to be more successful in the world and decreasing behaviors that are maladaptive or that will cause the child to have difficulty in the world.
17 DO Don’t Fade in demands Teach to Fluency Prompt Quickly Fade prompts Teach errorlesslyFade in demandsTeach to FluencyPrompt QuicklyFade promptsMake sure all questions have answersFind numerous reinforcersCorrect errorsHave fun!follow negative behavior with reinforcementRemove a child from a reinforcing activity to begin teachingGive directions to do things you can’t promptGive directions without getting complianceKill reinforcers by placing too many demands
18 Build Motivation (MO) Establish Reinforcers- everyone wants something! Start with non-verbal connection then add verbalHow does the child respond to the environment?Be playful- play as children playBuild anticipationDo the unexpectedCreate routinesGradually change the routinesStay connected to find reinforcersBe animatedPair yourself and talking with reinforcement
19 Transfer Procedures/Prompting Teach a new behavior by starting with a behavior that you know the child can already do.The child is more likely to repeat the same behavior under a different conditionOnce the behavior is taught under the new condition, gradually fade the promptNew learning is build on old learningThe learning remains “errorless”
20 Teaching Procedure for Transfers Transfer trial- Use the mastered skill to evoke the desired behavior then present the new SD to get the same behavior.Disractor trial(s)- Present a mastered task or twoIndependent trial- Re-present the new SD to evoke the behavior and reinforce correct response heavily
21 Correction Procedure Use whenever the child responds incorrectly Give the SD + the responseWait for the echoicRepeat the SDWait for the responseRun a distractor trial (something the child can do easily)
22 What to Teach Early Learners?? People are fun (even kids!)Words are valuableI can learnPlaying is fun and teaches me lots of things about the world.
23 Verbal Behavior- Verbal Operants (Skinner) Antecedent/Stimulus Behavior ConsequenceMand Motivation Says “car” gets car Echoic “Say car” Says “car” social/secondary Tact Car present Says “car” social/secondary Intraverbal “We ride in the ..”Says “car” social/sec.
24 Verbal Operants Mands- “I talk, I get” What purpose does the communication serve to the speaker and listener?Mands- “I talk, I get”Tacts- I can label things in the environment under a variety of conditionsReceptives- I can follow directions, do what others tell me to doImitation/Echoics- I can do/say what others do/sayIntraverbal- What I say is dependent upon what others say but is not the same
29 Manding The basis of all other verbal behavior Teach by transferring from echoics or “fill-ins”Giving up the things we wantWith and without items presentWith and without someone asking “What do you want?Teach a variety of sentence formsManding from peersExpand sentence length and teach concepts through mandsTeach manding for informationManding for attention
30 Choosing Response Forms If child is non-vocal, must use an alternative/augmentative systemAugmentative communication encourages rather than discourages vocal productionsExperiment to determine how the child responds to various formsPicture/object exchangeSignsCommunication BoardsVocalVoice output devices
42 Imitation Teach through physical prompting or anticipating actions Important for independent learning and playTeach child to do multiple actions in response to “Do this”Gradually increase difficulty and complexity
44 Echoics- Vocal Imitation Teach by transferring from mand, motor imitation, songs, “sound play” and pairing with reinforcementUse visual and/or physical prompting as necessaryGradually increase length and complexityShape through the mand
46 ReceptiveTeach by transferring from imitation or with physical promptsTeach the child to respond to a variety of SDs (touch, find, show, where’s the etc.)Start with items the child can mand for as well as simple instructions (i.e. come, sit, clap)Gradually increase complexity. Closely monitor conditional discriminations
49 TactsTeach by transferring from receptive (if child tacts), mand, fill-in, intraverbal or echoic.Labeling objects, actions, parts, features, classes, functionsBe sure to vary SD’sVerbal modules- teach the child to discriminate between question formsBuild up sentences and break them down
51 Intraverbal Talking about things not present Transfer from fill-in, tact, or echoicCreate “intraverbal links”Begin with songs, rhymes, stories and daily activitiesGradually increase complexityTeach reversal fill-ins earlyMands for information + intraverbals = conversation
54 Intensive TeachingUse to practice skills taught in the natural environmentMake sure instructors have mastered transfer and correction procedures to fluencyMix and vary to make sure the child is responding to the correct SD
55 Intraverbal FFC’s/Categories in Intensive Teaching
57 Dealing with Negative Behaviors New Behavior (talking) won’t be used if the old behavior (hitting) still worksMust determine function of the behavior before determining how to respondLook at what happened right before and right after the behaviorPut time between negative behavior and prompting appropriate communicationThe child never gets anything for negative behaviorDon’t live your life trying to avoid negative behaviorsGet a functional analysis by a behavior analyst if problems persist
58 Suggested Readings Educate Towards Recovery by Robert Schramm The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (The ABLLS) by Partington and SundbergThe VB-MAPP by Mark SundbergThe Mariposa School Training ManualHandouts available at letstalksls.com (Answers Database)