Presentation on theme: "CAROLINA CENTER FOR ABA AND AUTISM TREATMENT, INC Starting a VB Program."— Presentation transcript:
CAROLINA CENTER FOR ABA AND AUTISM TREATMENT, INC Starting a VB Program
Types of Programs In HomeSchoolClinic Based Consultation with BCBA or BCaBA One to one therapy with BCBA, BCaBA, or tutor Parents or caregivers available to observe and receive training. Child is familiar with environment (comfortable but may satiate) Consultation with BCBA or BCaBA One to one assistance with BCBA, BCaBA or tutor Access to peers Work together with educators to merge VB and academic environment Assist with implementation of positive behavior procedures/motivation plans Consultation with BCBA or BCaBA One to one therapy with BCBA, BCaBA or tutor Ability to better control environmental variables Access to novel or less available toys and activity
Identify Reinforcers A reinforcer is something delivered after a behavior that will increase the likelihood of that same behavior happening again under the same conditions. Examples: Edibles, gross motor actions, toys, art supplies
If your child is motivated by the following types of stimuli, the choices below are good places to start when attempting to identify reinforcers. Smell Scratch and sniff stickers scented markers or crayons Scented playdoh Scented dolls Touch Bean, rice, or sand play Playdoh, goo, theraputty Touch and feel books Blankets with different textures
Reinforcer Inventory Sight Toys that light up or blink Toys that glow Toys that spin: sit and spin, gears, tops Sounds Music CDs, MP3 Player Dolls/toys that talk Musical instruments
ACCESS: WHEN YOU BEGIN YOUR INVENTORY, ALLOW THE CHILD TO HAVE ACCESS TO 3-5 TOYS AT A TIME. TAKE NOTE OF WHICH TOYS THE CHILD SHOWS INTEREST IN. CHARTING: IF THE CHILD PICKS IT UP AND MANIPULATES IT, CHART IT. IF THE CHILD DOES NOT TOUCH THE ITEM AT ALL, HE OR SHE IS MOST LIKELY NOT GOING TO BE MOTIVATED BY THAT ITEM. COMPARE: PROVIDE ACCESS TO THE PREVIOUS ITEMS HE SHOWED INTEREST IN TOGETHER AND THEN CHART HIGHEST INTEREST. Conducting a Reinforcer Inventory
Pairing Once the child has shown interest in several items, you will begin to pair yourself with those items. You will offer the items to the child without contingency. By pairing yourself with the items, the child will begin to associate you with reinforcement. You will know you are paired with reinforcement when the child willingly approaches you in search of “fun.”
ABLLS-R, ASSESSMENT OF BASIC LANGUAGE AND LEARNING SKILLS-REVISED JAMES W. PARTINGTON, PH.D. BCBA, JULY 2008 VB-MAPP, VERBAL BEHAVIOR MILESTONES ASSESSMENT AND PLACEMENT PROGRAM MARK L. SUNDBURG, PH.D, 2008 Assessment
ABLLS-R VB-MAPP Assessment, guide and skills tracking system Task lists for 25 skill areas Skill areas broken into 4 large groups 1. Basic learner skills assessment 2. Academic skills assessment 3. Self-help skills assessment 4. Motor skills assessment www.behavioranalysts.com 5 components- Milestones Assessment, Barriers Assessment, Transitions Assessment, Task Analysis and Skills Tracking, and Placement and IEP goals Milestones Assessment is balanced across 16 skill areas and 3 developmental levels 1. 0-18 month skills 2. 18-30 month skills 3. 30-48 month skills www.avbpress.com Assessment
Fading in Demand Once an assessment has been completed with the input of parents, teachers, and other caregivers and the instructor is paired with reinforcement, goals and objectives are chosen by the consulting analyst. Goals and objectives are faded in slowly, with the identified reinforcers used as promises for demands placed. “Demands” refer to the request of the therapist for the child to perform a skill.
THE MAND THE FOCUS OF ALL PROGRAMMING IS INCREASING FUNCTIONAL LANGUAGE THROUGH MAND TRAINING. Functional Language
Manding A mand is, in B.F. Skinner’s definition, a “verbal operant in which the response is reinforced by a characteristic consequence and is therefore under the functional control of relevant conditions of deprivation or aversive stimulation (Skinner, 1957, pp. 35, 36).” In layman’s terms it is a request for another individual to respond
Manding: Choosing a Response Form Depending on the child’s current skills, the following are options for teaching mands: Picture Exchange Sign Language Vocal Language
Picture Exchange Picture exchange is chosen for a child who has limited to no vocal imitation and has difficulty with fine motor imitation Procedure in Brief Pictures of desired items are made available to the child The child selects the picture of the desired item or activity and gives the picture to the instructor Instructor says name of item and delivers item to child Thus the picture is “exchanged” for the item
Sign Language Sign Language is used with children who have little to no vocal language and who is responding to gross/fine motor skill prompting Signs may be modified to fit the gross/fine motor needs of the individual child. A sign book should be created for each individual child with pictures of the signs the child is currently using or working on as targets for all to prompt and respond consistently
Sign Language Prompts Spontaneous with Item not present Spontaneous with Item present Faded item Model Partial Physical Full Physical
Sign Language Prompts Full physical: Child displays motivation (points, reaches, or otherwise indicates desire), Instructor signs, prompts, delivers while saying name of item.
Sign Language Prompts Partial physical: Child displays motivation, instructor signs, partially prompts, and delivers while saying name of item.
Sign Language Prompts Model: Child displays motivation, instructor signs, child models sign and instructor delivers item while saying the name of the item.
Sign Language Prompts Faded item: Instructor moves item out of child’s view and child continues to ask for item without using model or physical prompts. Spontaneous, item present: Child spontaneously signs for the item in view. Spontaneous, item not present: Child spontaneously mands for an item not in view.
Vocal Mands Vocal mands are prompted when children have emerging vocalizations or sounds under instructional control. Vocalizations are always paired with the delivery of the reinforcer, regardless of the form of the mand. Vocalizations are the goal of the manding program and both picture exchange and signs will be transferred to the vocalization if the child has emerging skills in the vocal imitation skill area.
Vocal Language Prompts Spontaneous with Item not present Spontaneous with Item present Faded item Item present and asked, “What do you want?” Phonemic Echoic
Echoic Trials Echoic trials are the first step in teaching a vocal mand. The child shows interest in the item and the instructor will hold the item and say the name of the item. The child is given 2-3 seconds to respond. If the child does not give a vocal response, the instructor repeats the name of the item. The child is given 3 chances to respond. At the end of 3 trials, the child is given the item, even if no response. The child is given the item immediately if a vocalization is produced. The instructor then shapes the vocalizations to be a complete echo of the word by using the same procedure and delaying reinforcement until a better approximation is made, continuing to stay within the 3 trial format.
What do you want? Once the child is able to say the name of the item fluently with the echoic trial, the echo is transferred to the question, “What do you want?” Instructor: Ball Child: “Ball” Instructor: What do you want? Child: “ball”
Vocal Language Prompts Faded item: Instructor moves item out of child’s view and child continues to ask for item without using echoic. Spontaneous, item present: Child spontaneously asks for the item in view, and was not asked, “What do you want?” Spontaneous, item not present: Child spontaneously asks for an item not in view and was not asked, “What do you want?”
Helpful Resources Jason Bourret, Timothy R. Vollmer, & John T. Rapp (2004). Evaluation of a vocal mand assessment and vocal mand training procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 129-144.